Louis = Emil Bertin
Table of contents
Bertin was born in France Nancy in 1840. I entered the エコール polytechnic of Paris in 1858 and chose the way of the navy engineer (ジェニエ Mali time, meaning of the Génie maritime "genius of the sea"). The copybook of Bertin was Henri デュピュイ de loam. Bertin came to be known for the innovative design that often deviated from conventional common sense and came to be recognized as the first person of the war vessel design engineer globally. In addition, I took the doctorate of the law in 1871 and showed his versatile talent.
Life in Japan
The Japanese Government persuaded French navy engineer in 1885, and, for four years from 1886 through 1890, Bertin visited Japan as a foreign employee of the Japanese Navy. Bertin brought up a Japanese engineer and ship design engineer and I designed the modern warship and constructed it and constructed naval facilities. It became the extraordinary opportunity to design all naval for Bertin who became 45 years old, and to try ジューヌ エコール. It became the important single blow for U.K. and Germany which had influence for the new industrialization of Japan for the French Government.
When I lived in Japan, Bertin designed seven capital ships and 22 torpedo boats and constructed it, and, as for them, it was a nucleus of Japanese Navy wound life period and the warship that it was. Three Matsushima model protected cruisers are included in these warships. The main battery was only 1 gate, but it was a very strong 32cm mosquito, and these three ships carried 砲. And it became the main force of the Japanese fleet in the Sino-Japanese War from 1894 to the next year. In addition, I commanded Kure and the construction of arsenal and the Sayo Yasuzo shipbuilding yard of Sasebo.
However, Japan Era of Bertin is time tormented by a political plot. There was the faction which preferred U.K. or Germany to France in the Japanese Government, and distrust of France which strongly supported Tokugawa shogunate government again had not yet come. The danger that a position of Bertin was threatened came more than once. In addition, ジューヌ エコール which Bertin supported had not been yet demonstrated, and it might be said that the Japanese Navy did a gamble.
His effort to establish the Japanese Navy became the decisive contribution to victory by the Yellow Sea sea fight of September 17, 1894. Sukeyuki Ito of the Admiral of Japanese military which boarded flagship "Matsushima" sent the following contents to Bertin.
- "The warship met all desired of us, and they were terrible one ship of we fleet, and we were able to put bright victory for a Chinese ironside by those strong 兵装 and intellectual design." )
- "Bertin did not only establish a coastal defense ship and a design for first-class cruiser building, and I performed various suggestion, and it is the direction for uses of materials such as a fleet organization, coast defense, production, steel or the coal of the large diameter gun, and he stays in Japan for four years, and I did not stop work, and and, as for him, the result of his effort is remarkable at all for naval innovation." (Tokyo, January 23, 1890 )
The warship that designed it during a stay in Japan, and was constructed
- "The Matsushima model protected cruiser" of 3 - 4,278 tons of protected cruisers. "Matsushima" and "Itsukushima" were constructed at French Mediterranean Sea ironsmith shipyard, and "Hashidate" was constructed in Yokosuka.
- "Yaeyama" of 1,609 tons constructed in "Chiyoda" and Yokosuka of 2,439 tons constructed at Thompson Corporation Glasgow shipyard of small cruiser two - U.K.
- At Loire Corporation sun ナゼール shipyard of light cruiser one - France "Chishima" of the building
- In frigate one - Yokosuka "Takao" of 1,774 tons of the building
- "The 15th type torpedo boat" of "fifth type torpedo boat" (five of 14 ships are constructed at French Schneider Corporation crew dzo shipyard and are assembled in Japan, and stay, and nine construct the country) and for each 54 tons of torpedo boat 16 - for each 54 tons (one of two ships is constructed in a French Norman company, and one remainder constructs it domestically)
I went back to France, and Bertin was promoted to the principal of the navy engine school (Ecole du Génie Maritime). I obtained the position of the engineering general (ingénieur général) in 1895 and became Director navy warship Masamoto (Directeur des Construction Navales). The French navy holding the office to a director became the navy of the second place of the world in terms of tonnage. I came back to France and, ironically, noticed that Admiral ヤサント Aube was on the outs with ジューヌ エコール supporter and criticized the design of the designer friend once. His criticism was justified by crushing sinking of battleship "ブーヴェ" in later 1915. I enrolled in famous French Academy in 1903.
As for the concept of Bertin called the cruiser of 砲力重視, it was caught up with a previous dreadnaught by Russo-Japanese War from 1904 through 1905 in light defense, and the concept of ジューヌ エコール was doubted very much. I was not able to be satisfied with the general performance of the Matsushima model in Japan. After "the furrow side" of the cruise middle sank in Japan in December, 1886, the design after Bertin left was ordered from the British shipyard rather than France by France.
The true inheritance of Bertin in Japan was a series of modern shipyards particularly Kure and building of the Sasebo arsenal. By the way, the Yokosuka naval shipyard which was a first Japanese modern arsenal was made early by 1865 by French engineer, Leon's Berni. It is these Japanese arsenals that 12 destroyers were constructed for a French fortification fleet in World War I.
Bertin leaves several books.
- "Données Expérimentales sur les vagues et le roulis" (1874)
- "La MarineàVapeur de Guerre et de Commerce" (1875)
- "Les Grandes Guerres Civiles du Japon" (1894)
- "Chaudières Marines, Cours de MachineàVapeur" (1896)
- "État actuel de la marine de guerre"
- "Évolution de la puissance défensive des navires de guerre" (1906)
- "La marine moderne" (1910)
- "La marine moderne. Ancienne histoire et questions neuves" (1920)
- Dedet, Christian. Les fleurs d'acier du Mikado (Paris: Flammarion, 1993) (French)
- Bernard, Hervé. Historien de marineécrivain. L'ingénieur général du Génie maritime Louis, Emile Bertin (1840-1924) créateur de la marine militaire du Japonàl'ère de Meiji Tenno (British title quadrichromie 84 pages, autoédition 2007, imprimerie Biarritz) (French)
- Bernard, Hervé. Historien de marineécrivain. Ambassadeur au Pays du Soleil Levant dans l'ancien Empire du Japon (British title quadrichromie, 266 pages, autoédition 2007, imprimerie Biarritz) (French)
- Arthur, Birembaut (1970-80). "Bertin, Louis-Émile". Dictionary of Scientific Biography 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 84-85. ISBN 0684101149.
This article is taken from the Japanese Wikipedia Louis = Emil Bertin
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