|- The mayor||Taavi Aas (ECP)|
|- 計||159.2km2 (61.5mi2)|
|- 計||423,049 people|
|- Population density||2,614.0 /km² (6,770.2 /mi²)|
|Equal time obi||Eastern Europe time (UTC +2)|
|- Daylight saving time||Eastern Europe daylight saving time (UTC +3)|
|Area code||(+372) 64|
A capital of the Republic of Estonia where Tallinn (Tallinn [ˈtɑlʲˑinˑ]) faces the Finnish gulf in eastern Baltic Sea. As for the former title, as for レバル (German, Danish: Reval), the name of Russian Empire Era, レーヴェリ (Ревель), the name of Soviet Union Era are thalline (Та́ллин). Approximately 420,000 population. The old city is appointed in world heritage "Historic Centre of Tallinn".
Thalline is one of the major cities facing the Finnish gulf as well as capital Helsinki, Finland, St. Petersburg, Russia and is Europe culture capital in 2011. In addition, it is one of the main ports of call of Baltic Sea Cruise now in the harbor city that prospered for one of the Hansa city in the Middle Ages. The headquarters of the cyberterrorism measures organization of NATO was put in 2008 .
Table of contents
In 1154, it is written down with the world map of the ムラービト morning due to the hand of イドリースィー as "クルワン" (Qlwn). In addition, I am transcribed into "stiffness station wagon" (Kolyvan) in the chronicle of the east slab, but these come from hero "カレフ" (Kalev) coming out to an Estonian myth. The people of リヴォニア and Scandinavia called it "リンダニサ" (Lindanisa) until the thirteenth century. This is an Estonian national epic and is associated with the name of mother of カレビポエク which is the hero. She piles up a rock to make the grave of the late husband, and it is said that it became トームペア.
In 1050, the first fortress is built today in the hill of the center called トームペア. トームペア is the meaning of "the standing hill of the temple of Confucius" in German. In the early thirteenth century, it is paid their attention very much as the military strategy point that links Scandinavia to Russia by the northern Crusade by Teutonic Knight and Danish King. In addition, I get prosperity by transit trade to link Europe to Novgorod.
In 1219, the Danish King バルデマー second invaded and attacked with the Crusade and built the トームペア castle here (the name of "thalline" was derived from this). Hanseatic League increased it in 1285. I am located at the northernmost part as Hansa. In 1346, Denmark sold the colony of the Barthes eastern sea seaside to Teutonic Knight for silver coin 13,000 marks and raised it. After this, the influence of the Barthes German remains until it is the 20th century. However, in 1561, テッラ Mariana Islands of the old Teutonic Knight provincial government land dismantled it by リヴォニア war, and the northern part became Sweden territory est Lunt (Estonian dukedom) (Barthes empire). The influence of Sweden increases after リヴォニア war end of 1583, and the northern part of リヴォニア of existing Estonia enters the follower afterwards by 1629, too. It became the Estonian public nation's capital, and レヴァル developed, but I entered the follower of the Russia czar country in 1710, and the Estonia dukedom was demoted to the prefecture of Russian Empire afterwards in 1721 by large north war.
When Estonia became independent in 1918, it became the capital. However, I receive military occupation of Deutsches Reich afterwards. After war with the Soviet Union, independence is approved in Tal toe treaty in 1920. In 1940 of the early period of World War II, I received military occupation of the Soviet Union and was under occupation of Nazis Germany from 1941 through 1944. After withdrawal of Nazis Germany, the Soviet Union invades and attacks again and is considered to be Soviet Union territory.
In the late 1980s, independent feeling increased with a sign of the collapse of the Soviet Union, and, in 1988, approximately 300,000 people (as for the population of the whole land of Estonia approximately 1,500,000) gathered to "Hara of the song" in the suburbs of thalline, and there was a case to sing Estonian folk songs prohibited by the Soviet Union. The independent feeling increased, and 1 million in this way participated in exercise (way of Barthes) to bind thalline, Riga, 3 cities of three Baltic countries of Vilnius together with "a human chain" in 1989. I achieve independence in 1991. From this, the independence of Estonia may be said to be "the revolution with the song".
|Climate of thalline|
|Highest temperature record ° C (° F)||9.2 |
|Mean highest temperature ° C (° F)||−2.9 |
|Mean minimum temperature ° C (° F)||−8.2 |
|Minimum temperature record ° C (° F)||−31.4 |
|Precipitation mm (inch)||45 |
|The source: Pogoda.ru.net 7.09.2007|
Population composition, language
As for the constitution of inhabitants of 2013 when the population of thalline is 430,772 people (2014) of a race, a ratio Russian than statistics of the Estonian whole is high. Resident Russian and most of Ukrainian people do not keep Estonian nationality, and it is in the city where there are the most inhabitants having nationality except EU in EU, and, according to the statistics, 22% of the whole are people of nationality inhabitants except EU in 2009. In addition, the language competes for the ratio of Russian which does not become Estonian and the official language which are an official language, too.
I did it taking advantage of shift to the capitalist society, EU participation, and the economy of thalline greatly accomplished a change. Primarily I include a western afflux of capital. An advance to thalline of the neighboring country Finland company was prosperous, and Stockman of the department store let a shopping mall start a business among other things. In addition, the opening of business of the hotel of the North European capital occurs successively, too. Information technology (IT) industry is prosperous and is called "Silicon Valley of the Baltic Sea", and thalline really becomes city loss Gath and the sister city of the Silicon Valley of California. It is thalline that Skype スカイプ was developed.
Thalline old city
Thalline old city
|Fame||Historic Centre (Old Town) of Tallinn|
|The name of a Buddha||Centre historique (vieille ville) de Tallin|
|Registration division||Cultural heritage|
|The registration year||1997|
|Official site||World heritage center (English)|
Wow, in the old city, the low of the downtown area consists of town (Lower Town) and トームペア of the hilly section.
Wow, the town is Europe including the castle wall, but low is the one of the good former city areas of the state of preservation.
- ラエコヤ open space
- The old city hall
- Municipal assembly drugstore
- St. Nicholas church
- Spirit of a dead person church
- Great guild Hall
- Saint Olaf church
- Tower of pig マルガレータ
- House of three sisters
- St. Micah L monastery
There are many landmark architectures in トームペア of the hilly section around トームペア castle in a hill made of the limestone. On June 15, 1219, in the case of the battle of this ground, Dannebrog was born. Historic Centre of Tallinn was registered with UNESCO world heritage around トームペア in 1997.
- トームペア castle
- Alexander Nevsky temple of Confucius
- キーク in デ キョク
Shinki Hel facing each other across a Finnish gulf is the distance for around one and a half hours without only 80 kilos leaving it if it is a high speed ship by ferry for around three hours. Because prices (alcoholic beverages in particular) are lower than Finland, many shoppers visit the thalline city. There is the regular service of the ferry in Aland Islands, Stockholm or Rostock of Germany. It is hub Port of Estonian タリンク which is the largest shipping company in Europe.
A railroad reached in St. Petersburg, Riga, but the through train does not travel by a route service review of Estonian Japanese National Railways. Only the flight to the renin Graz key Moscow station is operated by service of GO Rail.
A lot of sections that the local line was abolished do not have much utility value. On the other hand, the long-distance bus is substantial. The companies operate a route to country, St. Petersburg or cities, Germany and U.K., Poland of three Baltic countries in euro lines at the start. From capital Riga, Latvia, it is 6-7 hours by bus from St. Petersburg for about 5-6 hours.
A European main airline runs in 4km, Tallinn Airport in the east bank of the ウレミステ lake (ウレミステ Airport) other than an international airline of the aviation in Estonia from the city. The expansion modernization construction of the airport was completed in 2008. There is the commuter service with the helicopter between Helsinki, too.
There are a bus, a streetcar and a trolley-bus. In addition, these means of transportation are available to thalline citizens free by using the published card.
- In ^ 2007, Estonia received a large-scale cyberterrorism attack of world first (*), and, taking advantage of a net function of the whole country having been paralyzed, NATO founded NATO cyber defense cooperation center to thalline in 2008. NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence。
(*) Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs HP, Republic of Estonia, diplomacy, national defense, 3 from national defense .
- ^ Tallinn City statistics
This article is taken from the Japanese Wikipedia Thalline
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