The super high-rise (ちょうこうそうけんちくぶつ) is the building which is particularly expensive in a high-rise. I say the skyscraper (a butterfly seems to be like that a building) (using the following, "a skyscraper"). There is not the unified clear standard whether you call buildings more than how much height a skyscraper (cf. # definition).
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In general, I am called a skyscraper and say the skyscraper (will of "the tall building as I rub the sky", English equivalent ). In English, I say Skyscraper (skyscraper, will of "the thing reducing the sky"), Tower (tower, will of "the tower"), Spire (spire, will of "the spire").
I pass more than 50 years, and an American building occupied the seat of the most expensive skyscraper in the world, but hands over the seat with development of the economic power of recent Asian countries.
There is not the unified clear definition whether you call the building of what kind of height and number of floors a skyscraper.
The "super high-rise" term is not used by the law of Japan, but height sets a standard of the structure that is different from the thing which is less than it for a building more than 60m in Building Standard Act Article 20 first, and buildings more than 60m in height may be called a high-rise building super ;  . In addition, Shinjuku-ku which is famous because there is skyscraper group establishes "Shinjuku-ku scenery formation guidelines" , but the object of "the scenery formation guidelines of those on skyscraper" is considered to be "a building more than 60m in height", too .
In the case of Japan, it is said, "I often call a building of height more than more than the 15th floor or 100m a super high-rise building" with "Koujien" as an example . The 15th floor is 45-60m when I suppose floor height to be 3-4m, and there will be a big difference in the height in 100m or more more than the 15th floor. When I give the example of other books
|マイペディア||Heibonsha Publishers Ltd.||More than 100m|
|Building serious matter celebration||彰国社||More than more than 100m or the 15th-floor degree|
|Architecture glossary of terms||Architectural Institute of Japan||More than the 15th-floor degree|
The value is different from と, 100m .15 floor degree by a book.
It is Kasumigaseki building to be considered to be a first Japanese skyscraper (the 36th floor, 147m above the ground); . Hotel New Otani (the 17th floor, 73m) which was the most expensive building was not called the skyscraper before it.
British skyscrapernews.com defines the buildings more than 150m in height (500ft) as a skyscraper (skyscraper) . In addition, I may call a skyscraper (super high-rise) of (... 1,000m or less) supertall building (supertall tower) or merely supertall (super Thor) more than 300m.
Height call the building more than 1,000m a hyper building (超々高層 building, 超々高層建築物) and is under construction in Jedda of Saudi Arabia (kingdom tower). I am going to finish 167-story approximately 1,007m in height (the amount of spire), 2019 and am expected to become the world's first hyper building if completed.
Significance of the building
The skyscraper depends on a scale, but a super high-rise is often adopted as a building built on the site after the land readjustment when I plan redevelopment business to have ability for huge demand in many cases.
When I demand a big capacity from the case that, as a result, it is in a super high layer-based building by establishing the multilayered building for collection of the investment capital, and being going to get profit and the limited land when a company is going to invest it in the land which is high in a property price as a built case of the skyscrapers, landmarks (symbol) such as land and a city, the country include cases to build it. In addition, the skyscraper often becomes the height that I surpassed from all around, and the influence on neighboring areas is big, too. Therefore the skyscraper with high design characteristics may improve the master of area and building architecture, the image of the tenant using the building, but correction is demanded in a plan stage, and suit may be submitted for a correction and the building suspension of the plan when the building is not accepted from the outskirts area.
The skyscraper becomes the index indicating economic power and the technology of the country and city, company now, but switches from the consumption society to the environment society are going to be planned in the developed country in these days in particular, and there is the aspect that effectiveness is doubted in the skyscraper using energy vast in that. In addition, the mental or physical influence on resident is concerned about particularly, in the case of a high-rise house, there is the memoir that neighboring human relations and the house environment of the district may turn worse depending on a resident and holds the problem.
As for the earthquake and wind pressure measures (earthquake-resistant structure), structure (a leg is compared to holding out, and enduring shaking in the train which a person is running) to be worthy of an earthquake and the wind pressure called "rigid structure" has been found with the conventional building, but is a building of "the flexible structure" to leave a building to shaking and the wind pressure of the earthquake to some extent at the skyscraper .
Furthermore, I adopt a method (each 制震構造) to attach the weight (weight) called the damper to the upper part of the building to catch low breaking point steel in in the pillar which attaches an oil pressure device (oil pressure damper) to a basic part (制震柱) these days at the built skyscraper, and to reduce shaking .
In addition, I separate the basics and upper part building and transmit laminated rubber and bearing between structures, and the method (quake-absorbing structure) to miss rolling itself is developed. The quake-absorbing structure is effective for a building becoming obsolete built in an old structure standard, and there is the 免震 nostalgic fitting (improvement, postscript) method of construction, too. But it is subject to burdens on weight not exceeding a constant level at the place that the first floor part is a cavity (a parking lot or bicycle parking lot) and enough sites can find because it is a thing to attach laminating rubber and a bearing to after this method of construction cuts a pillar basically, and a jack improved it.
Resonance with the long period earthquake vibration
Generally, a period of the natural frequency of the building gets longer so as to be high if a building is expensive . Therefore, at the skyscraper, possibility of the resonance with the earthquake vibration has it pointed out in the long period by the trench type giant earthquakes which is not assumed many problems in the building of the low-rise building . The history after the construction of the skyscraper begins is superficial in Japan, and there is not the skyscraper which experienced a real trench type giant earthquake. Therefore, for the long period earthquake empirical; it is the present conditions that is this year to depend on simulation, or it is not possible without being able to predict it. By the Niigata Chuetsu offing earthquake of July 16, 2007, the elevator for upper floors of Roppongi Hills urgently stopped it by earthquake vibration in a long period .
Because the work at the high place is forced to by the method (圧砕工法) demolishing little by little for the dismantling of the skyscraper by the upper part used for a general building, it is accompanied by difficulty. Therefore the blasting charge dismantling is used mainly in Europe and America, but, in Japan, a problem, the buildings of the handling of the gunpowder and associated laws and regulations crowd, and methods  dismantling sequentially are often adopted like Dharma shooting using a method and , the jack which I dismantle sequentially from the halfpace to regenerate construction reversely by the bottom. By Akasaka Prince Hotel, the dismantling of the Resona, Maruha Building, it was performed by the method that I dismantled one after another called "lever rep system"  by TAISEI CORPORATION.
Super high-rise of each country
Super high-rise of the United States
The United States of America is the country which became the pioneer of the world skyscraper, and a skyscraper accumulates most of the big city. Because a large number of skyscrapers crowd in Chicago in particular and New York, Los Angeles, the sun is bad on the ground.
In addition, I can look at the skyscraper now in San Francisco, Seattle, Minneapolis, Houston, Dallas, Detroit, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, Boston, Philadelphia, Charlotte, Atlanta, each main city of the United States of America including Miami. In addition, in the city where is lower than a middle scale, there are several cities where 801 grounds (801 Grand) of Iowa Des Moines, RSA battle house tower (RSA Battle House Tower) of Alabama Mobil, skyscraper including the gills studio Corning tower (Erastus Corning Tower) of New York Albany are built.
In Chicago of the skyscraper origin, I continued being robbed of world's best seat by New York by the fight for height of the building after the 1890s , but recaptured a world's best seat from New York when Sears Tower (442.3m, existing Willis tower) which was modernism architecture of the SOM design in a major GMS (General merchandise store) chain of the United States, the headquarters of Sears was completed in 1973. In 2013, 1 World Trade Center (541m) which collapsed by synchronized terrorist attacks in the United States was rebuilt, and it was again in the highest building and the building which was the third highest in the world in the United States. However, with ブルジュ Harry F (828m) of 2010 as a start, the huger skyscraper construction project has already gone mainly in the Middle East and China not the United States.
Super high-rise of Asia
The skyscraper construction until the 1960s was American standing unrivaled mainly, but skyscrapers gradually increased with economical development of the Asia region in Asia. Including Kasumigaseki building (147m, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo) and Kobe Commerce Industry And Trade Center Building (107m, Kobe-shi, Hyogo), twin towers (162.6m, Minato-ku, Tokyo) of Japan, Jardine house (Jerdine House: 怡和大廈, 178.5m) of Hong Kong, Singaporean OCBC center (overseas Chinese bank, Overseas Chinese Banking Corp Center: 201m) are the early things. Economic development of China and the United Arab Emirates is remarkable, and most of skyscrapers more than 300m in particular concentrate on these two countries now.
Skyscraper construction becomes up to professional standard from 1970s through 1980s in Japan, and it is skyscraper group (Shinjuku newly developed city center) and skyscraper group (Umeda) of Kita-ku, Osaka-shi, Osaka, building which is the highest at the time of the completion in East Asia built by Yodobashi water purification plant redevelopment in 角筈地区 (existing: Nishishinjuku) of Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo and sunshine 60 of Higashiikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo where it was that became the first on the list (240m).
There are many buildings more than 200m in the first on the list in Tokyo and Osaka, Nagoya, and, in Japan, the Haruka's of Abe of Osaka (300m) is built.
The Japanese construction company has the technique that can build the building which is much more expensive than this, and there is the experience that dealt with Malaysian Petronas twin tower and 101, Taipei, but I add it to the nature of the locality that there are many earthquakes in Japan, and there are the legal sides such as the height regulation based on the Aviation Act and does not realize it.
The Korean most high-rise building is a northeast Asian trade tower now. The building which is the most expensive in Seoul City is super high-rise apartment "Konan Tower palace" in Konan-ku. In this building soaring in Seoul, the Konan district that is the symbol of the Korean well off, it is the object of adoration of the Korean well off. In addition, the construction of the skyscraper is active around Seoul and Pusan of big city Ichibe in Korea with a little land. As for "Inchon tower" (487m) building in "pine Shimashin city" developed land for by a seaside part of Incheon Metropolitan City, it is going to be in the building which is the highest in Korea, East Asia, and even Pusan and the Seoul city receive increase of the office demand, and the construction of the large-scale office and Sumisho composition apartment occurs successively.
In China, the special economic zone was set in 深 圳, Zhuhai, Shantou, Xiamen (later Hainan) by the reform and opening up route that 鄧小平 of the Chinese Communist Party which began in 1978 commanded in 1980. An economic and technical development zone is set in 14 cities of the seaside part for the next 1,984 years and sees the remarkable development of cities from a foreign country afflux of capital when this movement increases big cities of Shanghai or Guangzhou. And a lot of skyscrapers have been built in Tianjin, Chongqing, Changchun, Qingdao, Dalian, Chengdu City, Wuhan, Shenyang, the city such as Xiamen by the development of the China's economy.
In the skyscraper which is the second most expensive in the world, as for 508m in height, 101 stories above the ground, the design, a plum Sohara architecture office, construction are JV led by KUMAGAI GUMI now at 101, Taipei (Taipei101, a former title: Taipei international finance center: Taipei International Financial Center: 台北國際金融大樓) completed in the Taipei City faith ward of Taiwan in 2004 (joint venture). I have the shopping mall which precedes a lower part in 2003, and started a business. The speed of the observation deck direct communication high speed elevator made in TOSHIBA set up in this building exceeded a thing of the Yokohama Landmark Tower made in Mitsubishi Electric, and it was the elevator which was the fastest in the world.
The skyscraper of the Taiwanese second place is a design of the plum Sohara architecture office same as 101, Taipei in 85, Takao building (east emperor person 85 國際廣場: Tuntex 85 Sky Tower, 378m) of Takao City completed in 1997. It was the building which was the most expensive in Taiwan until 101, Taipei was completed. High 85, Takao building is the twelfth now in the world.
In capital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, the economy of Malaysia grew up by economic policies such as "Look East policy" by the ex-Prime Minister Mahathir bottle Mohamad drastically. Of Cesar Pelli design, Japan which were the skyscraper which was the highest in those days in the world in redevelopment place "KLCC" of capital, Kuala Lumpur in 1998 associate; the Petronas of the state ownership oil company built the completion, this building a Petronas twin tower (Petronas Towers: 452m) of the major general contractor Hazama-Gumi construction. The Petronas twin tower has been already overtaken by the Taipei international finance center in Taipei, Taiwan, but is the still highest for a twin tower in the world.
After having become independent from the Federation of Malaysia in Singapore in 1965, the People's Action Party proclaimed the authoritarian autocracy system with the Lee Kuan Yew prime minister, and these were said to be dictatorship based on modernization. It becomes the thorough controlled society, but the economy continues remarkable growth. Many skyscrapers are built in the Raffles place of the center located in the southern part of Singapore in that. OUB center (Overseas Union Bank Centre: 280.1m) and the UOB plaza (United Overseas Bank Plaza One: 280.1m) of the Kenzo Tange design, the Republic plazas (Republic Plaza: 280.1m) of the Kisho Kurokawa design are skyscrapers on behalf of Singapore again in this. In 2006, a one Raffles key to KPF design tower (One Raffles Quay North Tower:245.1m) is completed.
I push forward investment as distribution of the Middle East, a financial base and in late years, in Dubai of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) which accomplished economic development, bristle with many skyscrapers. 2010年には、世界で最も高い超高層ビルであるブルジュ・ハリーファが竣工した。
歴史的な景観を重視するヨーロッパでは、元来超高層ビルの建設は余りされておらず、例外的には第二次世界大戦で壊滅したドイツのフランクフルトではドイツ及びヨーロッパの金融中心地として開発される際のオフィス供給の手段として、ドイツ銀行やコメルツ銀行などの200m級の超高層ビルが複数建設された。摩天楼の建つ一角はマイン川にマンハッタンを合わせた造語で「マインハッタン（Mainhattan）」と俗称される。またパリでは市内のオフィス需要を補うために郊外のデファンス（Défence）地区に新都心「ラ・デファンス（La Défence）」が作られ、ロンドンでは、「カナリー・ワーフ（Canary Wharf）」と呼ばれる新都心が作り出された。
1990年代前半からモスクワ川沿いに「モスクワ国際ビジネスセンター計画」（MIBC、モスクワ・シティ）が進行しており、現在ヨーロッパで一番高いビルになっている超高層ビルはモスクワ・シティーのフェデレーション・タワー（374m）である。他に354mのOKOや338mのマーキュリー・シティ・タワーや308mのユーラシア・タワーなどのビルが立ち並んでいる。完成すれば最大のビルとなる予定であったロシア・タワーは、経済危機の影響を受け、また、他のビルよりも着工が遅かったこともあり、計画は中止された。敷地跡には、ru:Renaissance Moscow Towers というツインタワーが建てられる計画だ。335m(74階）と290m(63階）の二棟が予定される。
ロンドン市街東部の港湾跡地ドックランズ（Docklands）地区が再開発され、「カナリー・ワーフ（Canary Wharf）」と呼ばれる新都心となり、超高層オフィスビルがロンドン・ドックランズ再開発公社（LDDC）によって続々と建設された。竣工当時は英国で最も高かったシーザー・ペリ設計のワン・カナダ・スクエア（One Canada Square：235.1m）」のほか、ノーマン・フォスター（Sir Norman Foster）卿設計の香港上海銀行（HSBC、社屋の名称は「8 Canada Square」：199.5m）や、シーザー・ペリ設計のシティバンク（社屋の名称は「25 Canada Square」：199.5m）などの超高層ビルへ、中心部のシティ・オブ・ロンドンから金融機関が本拠を移転している。
- ^ a b 広辞苑 第五版（岩波書店、1998年、ISBN 4000801112）
- ^ 超高層・免震建築物及び工作物の評価 - 財団法人日本建築総合試験所
- ^ (PDF) - 岡山県
- ^ 2013年5月26日（日）放送 超高層ビルはなぜ倒れないの？ - ラボラジオ - NHK
- ^ 新宿区景観形成ガイドライン 新宿区
- ^ (PDF)
- ^ 昭和毎日：昭和43年4月12日 日本初の超高層ビル・霞が関ビル竣工 - 毎日jp（毎日新聞）
- ^ Article - 1244 - Huge New Rogers Skyscraper Proposed（英語）
- ^ 超高層ビルの"なぜ"を科学する p.33
- ^ 超高層ビルの"なぜ"を科学する p.37
- ^ a b c 超高層ビルの"なぜ"を科学する p.36
- ^ 超高層ビルの"なぜ"を科学する p.82
- ^ 超高層ビルの"なぜ"を科学する p.83
- ^ 大成建設>会社情報>プレスリリース>2010年
- ^ 1908年以前はミルウォーキー市庁舎 (Milwaukee City Hall) やフィラデルフィア市庁舎 (Philadelphia City Hall) が世界一になったことがある。
- ^ 世界一ビル「ハリファの塔」に ドバイ、名称変更 - 47NEWS 2010年]1月5日
- ^ 1889年完成のモーレ・アントネリアーナ (167.5m) を世界一とすることもある。
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