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John Adams

John Adams

John Adams
John Adams
US Navy 031029-N-6236G-001 A painting of President John Adams (1735-1826), 2nd president of the United States, by Asher B. Durand (1767-1845) -crop.jpg

The term of office 1797March 4March 4, 1801
The Vice President Thomas Jefferson

The term of office 1789April 21 – March 4, 1797
The sovereign George Washington

US flag 13 stars – Betsy Ross.svg The United States of America
First United States of America charge minister of Netherlands
The term of office 17821788

The term of office 17751778

Birth (1735-10-30) 1735October 30
Grand Union Flag.svg 13 colonies Brent Lee Gulf of Massachusetts Crown Colony
The death (1826-07-04) July 4, 1826 (90 years old death)
Flag of the United States of America The United States of America MassachusettsQuincy
Political party Federal Party
Spouse Abigail Adams
Signature John Adams Sig 2.svg

John Adams (John Adams, October 19, 1735 (Julian calendar) /10 30 days a month (Gregorian calendar) - July 4, 1826) is a politician of the United States of America. The Vice President (first generation, two sittings from 1789 through 1797), the President (the second from 1797 to 1801). It is the U.S. Navy founder. I am considered to be one of the most influential people among United States of America Founding Fathers.

Adams became famous early in the American Revolution. I attended at Continental Congress as a representative of the Gulf of Massachusetts colony and played a leading role when Continental Congress adopted American Declaration of Independence in 1776. I was dispatched in Europe by Continental Congress and became the leading role of negotiations by the Paris Convention conclusion with the U.K. and was the central figure who got an important loan again from Amsterdam.

Adams acts as the second Vice President with George Washington in what I contributed to independently and will be picked to the second President again. During the term of office as this President, I will be troubled by rivalry in the Federal Party (the school which Alexander Hamilton leads) inside of oneself and the political party rivalry with the Jefferson style republican who distinguished himself/herself newly. In addition, I signed a foreigner, the peace and order all things which there was many of the debate. The biggest achievement during the President term of office is to have solved a para-war crisis with France peacefully in 1798.

After reelection was blocked in a presidential election in 1800 by Thomas Jefferson (the Vice President), I retired in Massachusetts. I made the family of a politician, the diplomat called the Adams political family and the historian with Abigail Adams of the wife and brought you up. His son John クィンシー Adams became the President of the sixth United States of America. The achievement of Adams was not evaluated as other Founding Fathers in those days, but came to receive a bigger evaluation in the present age.

I was proud of a most longevity record among the each generation Presidents of the United States until Ronald Reagan could blunder in October, 2001 (for 90 years old and 247 days as for the October, 2015 present next to Gerald R Ford, Reagan, George H W Bush, Jimmy Carter of the life time the fifth place).

Abigail Adams of the wife functioned as the first lady during the President term of office of the husband. I appeal for the improvement of women's rights and I object to slavery and am known for those days by having been the owner of the extremely progressive thought.

Table of contents


Adams was born in current Massachusetts Quincy (I was called "north district" of Braintree, and, in the birth place, it is now in Adams Kunitachi historical park) on October 30, 1735 [1]. It was the eldest son of three brothers [2]. Father John (from 1691 to 1761) of Adams was the fifth generation descendant of Henry Adams who emigrated to Massachusetts from Braintree of England in about 1638. Adams becomes the descendant of the male line family called Welsh "up Adams" [3]. Father was a farmer and was a member of a town assembly who supervised a school and a road in a first lieutenant, the town in a Catholic priest, the posse of a member of attendance group church namely the Puritan. Susanna Boylston Adams of mother was from the Boylstons of Brooklyn [4].

Adams was born in the home that was soberness and plainness, but it was serious and felt the responsibility that lived with the succession assets of the family. It was the reclamation generation of the Puritan who the ancestors came over to the wasteland of the United States in the 1630s, and built up the American colony that there was now. The Puritan of the great emigration generation thought, "they believed that they lived in the Bible, and England in Stewart morning was Egypt, and they came to Israel to make the city on the hill which was a refuge to be the person who escaped, and to worship God" [5]. By 1735 when Adams was born, the creed as the predestination of the Puritan was not accepted widely anymore, and most of the strict custom collapsed with the lapse of time, but it which "thought about a Puritan with a person of the freedom of enjoyment, the person of the side that had still holy emergency." was the value system which Adams believed, and Adams was a heroic model to pray for when I wanted to live a life in it [6].

Adams entered Harvard University in 1751 [7]. Father of Adams hoped that I became a clergyman, but Adams felt it in a question. I had time to think about the later occupation choice while graduating from a university in 1755, and acting as schoolteaching in Worcester for several years. I decided to become a lawyer after having repeated consideration many times and learned a law in a law office of James Putnam that was a well-known lawyer in Worcester. It was recognized as a trial lawyer in 1758. Adams has a custom to write down the impression of the event and the impression of the person after childhood, and it can appear in a diary of Adams. Because I used the way as a lawyer well and wrote it down about many cases that I observed, I studied them and was able to consider. The thing earliest in the report which he wrote down about the lawful act of the help warrant of James Otis in the Massachusetts Supreme Court have just finished saying it. This event happened in 1761 let Adams cause the enthusiasm for the colony of the United States [8]. After having got old, Adams tried to finish writing this event in detail.

On October 25, 1764 to be five days before a 29-year-old birthday, Adams hit a cousin [9] for the third generation in way trouts of Massachusetts and got married with Abigail Smith (from 1744 to 1818) of the daughter of the Rev. clergyman attendance group church William Smith. For the child of Mr. and Mrs. Adams, there were Abigail Adams Smith (from 1765 to 1813), later President John クィンシー Adams (from 1767 to 1848), Susanna (from 1768 to 1770), Charles Addams (from 1770 to 1800), Thomas Boylston Adams (from 1772 to 1832) and Elizabeth (1777) born dead.

John Adams did not possess the leadership like his second cousin Samuel Adams. It was that, besides, there were deep legal knowledge and admiration about a principle of the republicanism as a detailed analyst [10] of the historical precedent as an essential lawyer that he affected the event. Adams often thought that pugnaciousness that I was born was limited in 政歴. He devoted himself to the bar and it was intense and engaged daringly. However, his vanity and pride, devil became the serious handicap in the political career. These characteristics were stated clearly in particular during during a later period, e.g., the President term of office.

Career until independence

Opposite to 1765 Stamp Act

When I pushed Stamp Act to the colony in 1765 to let you provide me with the expense that let the armed forces station in a debt and the American colony that a British assembly bore in the war of British troops, as for Adams, it was to a person for the first time well-known as the opponent. Adams was speaking it later, and the sermon that clergyman Jonathan Mayhew of Boston interpreted the letter thirteenth to a Roman, and explained the principle of the riot was published many times, and fire was touched for the resistance of the people [11].

In 1765, Adams drafted a remit sent to the delegate whom I sent to the Massachusetts assembly by a resident of Braintree. This remit was considered to be the model of the remit which other towns sent to the delegate. In August of the year, Adams contributed four well-known articles to "Boston gusset" paper by anonymity (I am placed as "true feelings of the United States" with "London chronicle" paper again in 1768 and am called "an article about laws and ordinances and the seal-based law"). I suggested that there was a connection between a Protestant concept and the concept in the back of the resistance for the Stamp Act that the Puritan who was ancestors of Adams brought in this in New England. Stamp Act was guaranteed by every British and explained the opposition of the colony to Stamp Act when this was because it would take two basic rights to deserve away from an American colony person if every free spirit received it. In other words, it is a right to receive a trial by the jury who is equal with a right to be taxed by an agreement.

"The Braintree remit" was the right of the colony and concise, frank defense of the freedom, and the article was an essay in the ideological education.

Because Adams made a speech in front of the governor and a member of the Diet in December, 1765, and Massachusetts did not send a representative to the British assembly, I declared the law with invalidity for grounds not to agree to Stamp Act [12].

Boston Massacre

The opposition that happened in a town of Boston in 1770 came to be called the Boston Massacre to a result called the killing of five citizens by the soldier of U.K. [13]. Soldiers who participated in this case were arrested and received criminal charge, but a trial lawyer was not readily found. Soldiers finally asked Adams for defense. Adams was afraid that one's reputation was hurt, but undertook defense. Six people were found not guilty among soldiers. Two soldiers fired at the people directly and were prosecuted for murder, but were only convicted of a negligence causing injury and death punishment.

Captain one of the soldiers Thomas Preston paid "1 symbolic guinea" for a legal fee if it depended on チナード of the historian and insisted when it was for the only reward that Adams got by this case. However, I state that I do not receive David マッカルー other than the legal fee of 18 guineas in a biography about Adams [14]. Preston pays a down payment 10 guinea, and what paid 8 guineas later writes even in the diary of Adams, "I consume it most while it is all of the money that I received for the labor for from 14 to 15, and I defended it and was drudgery" [15].

In spite of worry of Adams, I was picked in June, 1770 when I prepared for this trial by the member of the Massachusetts assembly (Volksraad) [16].

Discussion about the authority of the British assembly

Because the British Royal Family would decide to pay the salary from a duty income as for oneself and judges as for Thomas Hutchinson of the Gulf of Massachusetts proconsul in future in 1772, I declared it if it did not have that a salary was paid by the Massachusetts assembly. Radicals of Boston protested this and requested Adams to explain the protest. If the person from colony was not under the sovereignty of the British assembly, Adams insisted in "two answers to address to Governor-General Hutchinson from the Massachusetts assembly". The original authorization of the colony is a thing of the king person; the loyalty of the person from colony only for the king. If a proper line was not drawn between all mark independence of sovereignty and the colony of the assembly, I continued the colony when the choice that chose independence disappeared.

As for Adams, "New England attacked the essay of several parts of Daniel Leonard who defended what, in other words, Hutchinson insisted on in the absolute authority of the British assembly for a colony in until the present from history of the debate with the United States, original 1754". In this "New England," one point argues against Adams in one point of essay of Leonard; by the person from colony for the British Empire policy is the most extensive, and will give you one of the deep claim of the profound knowledge.

It was the systematic trial that Adams performed that explained character and legal authority about the British constitution that did not become the document in the origin. Adams made use of the U.K. and wide knowledge about the history of legislation of the colony, and Volksraad had all authority about the inside circumstances, and the colony showed that I was connected with the U.K. only by keeping the king.

Continental Congress

The Gulf of Massachusetts colony sent Adams to the first Continental Congress of 1774 and the second Continental Congress from 1775 through 1777 as a delegate [17]. By an opinion to promote the unification of the colony in June, 1775, I nominated George Washington from Virginia colony for the commander in chief of the armed forces which gathered around Boston. The influence of Adams in Continental Congress was big and almost demanded lasting separation with the U.K. from the beginning of start.

Portrait of John Adams used for the 2-cent stamp President series of the United States

On May 15, 1776, Continental Congress supported that the antagonism that Lexington Concord 13 months ago had begun to rustle in became intense, and the colony established each constitution and recommended that it was in the forerunner of the independent state. The resolution to draft an independent constitution was "independence itself" so that Adams said [18].

The American who gathered from every 邦 for next ten years devised a document for the new rule. When it was radical to write a constitution, the character of the American political thought when the summer of 1776 began was radical equally likewise (it was not necessary to legislate the organization form of the government in the held meeting, and it was said that it did not have to be a method of forming written in the single document) [19].

"Way of thinking about the government"

I demanded advice from Adams about some representatives of 各邦 forming the new government. Adams got tired to repeat the same thing, and a pamphlet published "a way of thinking about the government" in 1776 and affected it when this drafted the much Kuninori method afterwards. I insist that many historians should read "a way of thinking about the government" as the thing which clarified a classic republican form of government theory of the mixed government. Adams insisted that walk of life existing in every political circle and the good government must receive the reality. アリストテレスに遡る長い間、混合された体制が君主制、貴族制および民主制をバランスさせ、すなわち君主、貴族と人民が秩序と自由を保つよう求められると主張した[20]。



























ワシントン政権の1年目、アダムズは大統領の公式称号に関して1ヶ月に及ぶ上院での議論に深く巻き込まれた。最終的に決まった単純な「アメリカ合衆国大統領」よりも「大統領閣下」(His Majesty the President)あるいは「殿下」(His High Mightiness)という仰々しい肩書きの方を好んだ。アダムズの姿勢の尊大さは、彼が太り気味だったこととともに、「肥満様」(His Rotundity)という渾名まで頂戴した。





















  • 帰化法、1798年6月18日成立
  • 外国人法、同年6月24日成立
  • 敵対的外国人法、同年7月6日成立
  • 治安法、同年7月14日成立



















  • 第1回 (1797年12月、英文)
  • 第2回(1798年12月8日、英文)
  • 第3回(1799年12月3日、英文)
  • 第4回(1800年11月22日、英文)


職名 氏名 任期
大統領 John Adams 1796–1801
副大統領 Thomas Jefferson 1796–1801
国務長官 ティモシー・ピカリング 1796–1800
  ジョン・マーシャル 1800–1801
財務長官 オリヴァー・ウォルコット 1796–1800
  サミュエル・デクスター 1800–1801
陸軍長官 ジェイムズ・マクヘンリー 1796–1800
  サミュエル・デクスター 1800–1801
司法長官 チャールズ・リー 1796–1801
郵政長官 ジョセフ・ハーバーシャム 1796–1801
海軍長官 ベンジャミン・ストッダート 1798–1801
























  1. ^ Chambers Biographical Dictionary, ISBN 0-550-18022-2, page 8
  2. ^ From David McCullough, John Adams, 直ぐ下の弟はピーター、一番下の弟はエリフである。エリフは1775年のボストン包囲戦中に戦病死した。
  3. ^ Ancestors of John ADAMS
  4. ^ Ferling (1992) ch 1
  5. ^ Brookhiser, Richard. America's First Dynasty. The Adamses, 1735-1918. The Free Press, 2002, p.13
  6. ^ ibid, p. 13
  7. ^ Timeline:Education and the Law - The John Adams Library
  8. ^ Ferling (1992) ch 2
  9. ^ This Day in History in 1828, www.history.com, retrieved 3-13-2008
  10. ^ Ferling (1992) p 117
  11. ^ Rev. Jonathan Mayhew, "Discourse Concerning Unlimited Submission and Non-resistance to the Higher Powers," January 30, 1750. On Adams's attribution to Rev. Mayhew refer to the TeachingAmericanHistory.org
  12. ^ Ferling (1992) pp 53-63
  13. ^ Zobel, The Boston Massacre, W.W. Norton and Co.(1970), 199-200.
  14. ^ McCullough, John Adams, pg. 66
  15. ^ Adams, John, Diary and Autobiography of John Adams,L.H. Butterfield, Editor.(Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1961.)
  16. ^ "John Adams, 1st Vice President (1789-1797)". United States Senate. 2007年8月1日閲覧。
  17. ^ In 1775 he was also appointed the chief judge of the Massachusetts Superior Court.
  18. ^ Ferling (1992) ch 8 p 146
  19. ^ Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (1993)
  20. ^ Ferling (1992) pp 155-7, 213-5
  21. ^ Thoughts on Government, Works of John Adams, IV:195
  22. ^ Ferling (1992) ch 8.
  23. ^ TO WILLIAM P. GARDNER, Thomas Jefferson, The Works of Thomas Jefferson, Federal Edition (New York and London, G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1904-5). Vol. 11.
  24. ^ Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who. (1963). 
  25. ^ Adams Autobiography, entry March 10, 1778.
  26. ^ McCullough, David. John Adams. pg 179
  27. ^ Fiske, John (1896). Critical Period Of American History, 1783-89. Cambridge, MA: The Riverside Press. pp. 22-24. ISBN 0781228484. OCLC 232657364. http://cupid.ecom.unimelb.edu.au/het/fiske/critical.rtf 2009年7月20日閲覧。. 
  28. ^ Ferling (1992) ch 11-12
  29. ^ 1782年2月、フリースラント州がアメリカ合衆国を認知した最初のオランダの州になった。ただし、フランスは1778年に外交的認知をした最初のヨーロッパ国家となっていた。
  30. ^ 1794年までに合計11件のアメリカ合衆国の借款がアムステルダムで承認され、総額は2,900万ギルダーに上った。
  31. ^ Dutch American Friendship Day / Heritage Day - U.S. Embassy The Hague, Netherlands
  32. ^ Stockdale, E. (2005). 'Tis Treason, My Good Man! Four Revolutionary Presidents and a Piccadilly Bookshop. London: The British Library. pp. p.148. ISBN 0712306994. 
  33. ^ The Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States of America
  34. ^ See http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=6193.
  35. ^ Gordon, Lyndall (2005). "Chapter 3: New Life at Newington". Vindication : a life of Mary Wollstonecraft. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0060198022. 
  36. ^ Ronald M. Peters. The Massachusetts Constitution of 1780: A Social Compact (1978) p 13 says Adams was its "principal architect."
  37. ^ John Adams: Defence of the Constitutions, 1787
  38. ^ Turgot to Richard Price, March 22, 1778, in Works of John Adams, IV:279
  39. ^ Wood, Revolutionary Characters: What Made the Founders Different (2006) pp 173-202; see also Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (1993).
  40. ^ Thompson,1999
  41. ^ Works of John Adams, IV:557
  42. ^ Madison, James. "The Federalist No. 51". 10-02-16閲覧。
  43. ^ Littlefield, Daniel C. "John Jay, the Revolutionary Generation, and Slavery." New York History 2000 81(1): p 91-132. ISSN 0146-437X
  44. ^ Ferling (1992) pp 172-3
  45. ^ Ferling (1992) ch 15
  46. ^ Ferling (1992) p 311
  47. ^ Ferling (1992) pp 316-32
  48. ^ Biography of John Adams
  49. ^ Elkins and McKitrick, The Age of Federalism (1993), pp 513-37
  50. ^ Arthur Meier Schlesinger, ed. History of American Presidential Elections, 1789-1984 (Vol 1) (1986), essay and primary sources on 1796
  51. ^ Ferling (1992) ch 16, p 333.
  52. ^ McCullough p 471
  53. ^ Ellis (1998) p 57
  54. ^ Kurtz, The Presidency of John Adams (1957) ch 12
  55. ^ Gordon S. Wood, Empire of Liberty: A history of the Early Republic, 1789-1815 (2009)
  56. ^ William Chambers, The First Party System: Federalists and Republicans (1972)
  57. ^ Kurtz, The Presidency of John Adams (1957) ch 13; Miller, The Federalist Era (1960), ch. 12
  58. ^ Kurtz, The Presidency of John Adams (1957) ch 13; Miller, The Federalist Era (1960), ch. 13
  59. ^ Elkins and McKitrick, The Age of Federalism (1993) ch. 15
  60. ^ James Morton Smith, Freedom's Fetters: The Alien and Sedition Laws and American Civil Liberties (1967)
  61. ^ Ferling (1992) ch 17
  62. ^ Elkins and McKitrick, The Age of Federalism (1993) pp. 714-19
  63. ^ Kurtz (1967) p 331
  64. ^ Ferling (1992) ch 18
  65. ^ Elkins and McKitrick The Age of Federalism pp 696-700; Paul Douglas Newman, ''Fries's Rebellion: The Enduring Struggle for the American Revolution (2004).
  66. ^ Ferling (1992) ch 19; Ferling (2004)
  67. ^ "Overview of the White House". White House Museum. 2008年7月16日閲覧。
  68. ^ Ferling (1992) ch 20
  69. ^ Ferling (1992) p. 429
  70. ^ a b Cappon (1988)
  71. ^ Cappon, ed., 387
  72. ^ Cappon, ed. 400
  73. ^ Ferling (1992) ch 20
  74. ^ Hakim. Joy. The New Nation, page 97 (Oxford University Press 2003).
  75. ^ Jefferson Still Survives. Retrieved on 2006-12-26.
  76. ^ Robert B. Everett, "The Mature Religious Thought of John Adams," Proceedings of the South Carolina Historical Association (1966), p 49-57; [ISSN 0361-6207].
  77. ^ Howard Ioan Fielding, "John Adams: Puritan, Deist, Humanist," Journal of Religion, Vol. 20, No. 1 (Jan., 1940), pp. 33-46 in JSTOR
  78. ^ See TeachingAmericanHistory.org: " A Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law", John Adams, 1765
  79. ^ The Works of John Adams (1854), vol III, p 421, diary entry for July 26, 1796.
  80. ^ a b "Unitarian Universalist Historical Society Biography". 2007年12月11日閲覧。



  • Brown, Ralph A. The Presidency of John Adams. (1988). Political narrative.
  • Chinard, Gilbert. Honest John Adams. (1933). Dated but still-valuable biography.
  • Elkins, Stanley M. and Eric McKitrick, The Age of Federalism. (1993), highly detailed political interpretation of 1790s
  • Ellis, Joseph J. Passionate Sage: The Character and Legacy of John Adams (1993), interpretative essay by Pulitzer Prize winning scholar.
  • Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: The Tumultuous Election of 1800. (2004), narrative history of the election.
  • Ferling, John. John Adams: A Life. (1992), full scale biography
  • Freeman, Joanne B. Affairs of Honor: National Politics in the New Republic. (2001) - chapters 2 [on John Adams and print culture] and 5 [on the election of 1800] are of special relevance.
  • Grant, James. John Adams: Party of One.(2005), one-volume biography, notable for its modesty and for its grasp of finances as well as politics.
  • Haraszti, Zoltan. John Adams and the Prophets of Progress. (1952). Incisive analysis of John Adams's political comments on numerous authors through examining his marginalia in his copies of their books.
  • Howe, John R., Jr. The Changing Political Thought of John Adams. (1966). Stressing change over time in Adams's thought, this book is still a valuable and clearly-written treatment of the subject.
  • Knollenberg, Bernard. Growth of the American Revolution: 1766-1775,(2003). Online edition.
  • Kurtz, Stephen G. The Presidency of John Adams: The Collapse of Federalism, 1795-1800 (1957). Detailed political narrative.
  • McCullough, David. John Adams (2002). Best-selling popular biography, stressing Adams's character and his marriage with Abigail while scanting his ideas and constitutional thoughts. Winner of the 2002 Pulitzer Prize in Biography.
  • Miller, John C. The Federalist Era: 1789-1801. (1960). Slightly dated but still-valuable, thorough survey of politics between 1789 and 1801.
  • Ryerson, Richard Alan, ed. John Adams and the Founding of the Republic (2001). Essays by scholars: "John Adams and the Massachusetts Provincial Elite," by William Pencak; "Before Fame: Young John Adams and Thomas Jefferson," by John Ferling; "John Adams and the 'Bolder Plan,'" by Gregg L. Lint; "In the Shadow of Washington: John Adams as Vice President," by Jack D. Warren; "The Presidential Election of 1796," by Joanne B. Freeman; "The Disenchantment of a Radical Whig: John Adams Reckons with Free Speech," by Richard D. Brown; "'Splendid Misery': Abigail Adams as First Lady," by Edith B. Gelles; "John Adams and the Science of Politics," by C. Bradley Thompson; and "Presidents as Historians: John Adams and Thomas Jefferson," by Herbert Sloan.
  • Sharp, James Roger. American Politics in the Early Republic: The New Nation in Crisis. (1995), detailed political narrative of 1790s, stressing the emergence of "proto-parties."
  • Shaw, Peter. The Character of John Adams. (1975). Elegant short life, infused with psychological insight and sensitivity to Adams's inner life as well as his intellectual life.
  • Smith, Page. John Adams. (1962) 2 volume; full-scale biography, winner of the Bancroft Prize
  • Thompson, C. Bradley. John Adams and the Spirit of Liberty. (1998). Acclaimed analysis of Adams's political thought; insisting Adams was the greatest political thinker among the Founding Generation and anticipated many of the ideas in The Federalist.
  • White, Leonard D. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History (1956), thorough analysis of the mechanics of government in 1790s
  • Wood, Gordon S. Empire of Liberty: A history of the Early Republic, 1789-1815 (2009), major new survey of the era in the Oxford History of the United States
  • Wood, Gordon S.. Revolutionary Characters: What Made the Founders Different (2006). The chapter on Adams, a slightly revised version of chapter XIV of the author's The Creation of the American Republic, 1776-1787 (1969), may be the most influential short treatment of John Adams's political thought ever written.


  • Adams, C.F. The Works of John Adams, with Life (10 vols., Boston, 1850-1856)
  • Butterfield, L. H. et al., eds., The Adams Papers (1961- ). Multivolume letterpress edition of all letters to and from major members of the Adams family, plus their diaries; still incomplete [1].
  • Cappon, Lester J. ed. The Adams-Jefferson Letters: The Complete Correspondence Between Thomas Jefferson and Abigail and John Adams (1988).
  • Carey, George W., ed. The Political Writings of John Adams. (2001). Compilation of extracts from Adams's major political writings.
  • Diggins, John P., ed. The Portable John Adams. (2004)
  • John A. Schutz and Douglass Adair, eds. Spur of Fame, The Dialogues of John Adams and Benjamin Rush, 1805-1813 (1966) ISBN 978-0-86597-287-2
  • C. Bradley Thompson, ed. Revolutionary Writings of John Adams, (2001) ISBN 978-0-86597-285-8
  • John Adams, Novanglus; or, A History of the Dispute with America (1774) online version
  • Brinkley, Alan, and Davis Dyer. The American Presidency. Boston: Houghton Mifflin company, 2004.
  • Hogan, Margaret and C. James Taylor, eds. My Dearest Friend: Letters of Abigail and John Adams. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007.
  • Taylor, Robert J. et al., eds. Papers of John Adams. Cambridge: Harvard University Press
  • Wroth, L. Kinvin and Hiller B. Zobel, eds. The Legal Papers of John Adams. Cambridge: Harvard University Press
  • Butterfield, L. H., ed. Adams Family Correspondence. Cambridge: Harvard University Press


George Washington
1797年3月4日 - 1801年3月4日
Thomas Jefferson
新設 アメリカ合衆国副大統領
1789年4月21日1 - 1797年3月4日
新党結成 連邦党大統領候補
1796, 1800
17922 3
新設 アメリカ合衆国イギリス担当大臣
1785年 - 1788年
1782年 - 1788年
George Washington
1799年12月14日 - 1826年7月4日
1. アダムズの副大統領しての任期の始まりはしばしば3月4日、4月6日も挙げられる。3月4日は初代副大統領の公式の任期開始日である。4月6日は議会が選挙人投票を計数し、副大統領を公認した日付である。4月21日はアダムズが就任宣誓を行った日付である。
2. アダムズはまた1789年に副大統領に就任したが、連邦党の候補ではなかった。(連邦党はまだ結成されていなかった。)
3. アダムズは1792年の大統領候補者であり、ピンクニーは1796年の大統領候補者であった。1804年の憲法修正第12条の通過前、それぞれの大統領選挙人は二票を投票し、最多得票者が大統領に、次点候補が副大統領となることになっていた。従って、1792年の大統領選では本命候補としてのジョージ・ワシントンに対して、連邦党は副大統領選出を考えてアダムズを候補として擁立した。同様に連邦党は1796年にアダムズとトーマス・ピンクニー、1800年にアダムズとチャールズ・コーツワース・ピンクニーを擁立した。

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