Floating form ocean wind-generated electricity
|This item "floating form marine wind-generated electricity" was translated halfway. (the original: English version) |
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Floating form ocean wind-generated electricity (ふたいしきようじょうふうりょくはつでん) is wind-generated electricity using the floating form structure which floated with a kind of the marine wind-generated electricity on the sea. Because profitability turns worse with the implantation type when I exceed depth of the water 50m, a floating form wind-power generator is installed in the sea area of 50m - 200m. 
Setting advances in all the countries of the world including WindFloat installed in off Portuguese Póvoa de Varzim since Hywind appearing to studio station wagon gel ocean 10km of Norway in 2009 is put to practical use for the first time in the world. The further spread is expected particularly will insist on スタトイルハイドロ Corporation which offered Hywind open in future when the main market is Japan potentially . Because there are few shallow for a good distance from the shore shores, in Japan, it is considered that the practical use of the floating form becomes the key to marine wind-generated electricity spread unlike Europe. , in Japan, the first proof examination was carried out off Kabashima (かばしま) of Goto-shi, Nagasaki in 2011, and (as for the name of the generator Mitsubishi SeaAngel) was established to Naraha-machi, Fukushima offing 20km in the Fukushima future that was first Japanese floating form ocean wind-power plant in 2014. A wind farm is going to be built as the world's first large-scale business in the Fukushima future in 2015.  Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport and Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry push forward development, the technology development of safety standards, international standardization to maintain the environment that business is easy to present at home and abroad. 
Table of contents
Because there is not a thing shutting out the wind at the open sea, a more strongly than the ocean near the land and the land stable velocity of the wind is available , but may not build the wind turbine of the expression to reach the bottom because the depth of the water is too deep. I can generate power by wind at such a place by using a floating form structure.
The concept of the floating form ocean wind-generated electricity is William E. of the Massachusetts University Heronemus professor thought of it in 1972, but I attracted attention again to the mid-1990s when the commercial nature of the wind-generated electricity was established, and a full-scale study for the realization finally began . The marine wind-generated electricity with the wind turbine of the existing model to reach the bottom was limited by the place of 30 meters of depth of the water, but the resource of the wind-generated electricity in the open sea to 600 meters of depth of the water is incomparably rich, and it is not a difficult thing that transmit electricity through bottom of the sea electrical power cable again to the city in the seashore.
Two floating form ocean wind-generated electricity facilities were operated to date in 2009.
- Blue H
- Blue H is the first floating form ocean wind-generated electricity facility built to marine 21km of Italy in December, 2007, but it is a prototypic plane, and the scale is small. After achieving an experiment plan for one year, and having collected various operational data, I retired at the end of 2008. 
Blue H was established to 21 kilos, the south Adriatic Sea ocean of 113 meters of depth of the water  from southeast, the land of Puglia, Italy in 2008 by Netherlands Blue H Technologies company. It is the world first floating form ocean wind-generated electricity facility for a managed thing , but is really a prototype machine to test the velocity of the wind and the state of the sea not the thing which it is power output capacity only 80 kilowatts, and is practical. It was installed and retired at the end of 2008 just one year later.
Blue H Technologies company used a mooring system called "tension-leg platform" and the turbine with two pieces of blades in this prototypic plane. The wind turbine with two pieces of blades could prefer a big boom to three pieces of blades, and there was the merit that could raise end speed more, but there was the demerit that, on the other hand, the noise pollution grew big. However, it is not necessary to mind noise pollution distantly at the remote open sea from a house .
[update], Blue H Technologies company are building the succession of the prototypic plane which they retired from and the commercial 2.4 MW turbine of the full scale that it is in Italian ブリンディジ as of a year in 2009. I am going to install this turbine in the place same as what installed prototype in 2010, and it is going to become the first turbine in the Tricase ocean wind-power plant consisting of floating form ocean wind-generated electricity turbines of 38 (90MW) .
Hywind was offered open in June, 2009 by スタトイルハイドロ company. Is facilities world's first for a practical large-capacity floating form ocean wind-generated electricity turbine ; . After the sea was assembled in the Åmøy fjord which there was in the suburbs of calm studio station wagon gel City, a wind turbine made in the Siemens Wind Power (Siemens) company which had 120 meters of towers of the floating form made in Technip company with height and power output capacity of 2.3MW in June, 2009 was towed to southwest 10 kilos of the Karmøy village, the point of 220 meters of depth of the water and was offered in a test for 2 years .
It is スタトイルハイドロ company to own basics part. Alexandra Beck Gjorv of スタトイルハイドロ company tells, "this experiment suffers it will be help to promote past marine wind-generated electricity to the other dimension (omission), and the potential global market of the floating form ocean wind-generated electricity is huge, and how much the cost is lowered" . スタトイルハイドロ company speaks, "the floating form ocean wind-generated electricity is unripe, and the commercialization is severe" again ; . As for this world's first floating form ocean wind-generated electricity turbine put to practical use, construction and setting cost approximately 400 million kroner (62 million dollars), too ; .
When Hywind produced electricity of about 9GWh a year, was expected , but really supplied electricity of 7.3GWh in 2010, and was unhurt, and endured 11 meters of waves , and continued supplying electricity to a Norwegian power network ; .
I can classify the floating form ocean wind-generated electricity in two types.
- single-turbine-floater (I install one wind turbine in one floating form structure)
- multiple turbine floaters (I install plural wind turbines in one floating form structure)
The main system to moor at with a floating form structure in the sea is following three kinds in a wide sense. I can tell a narrow sense to be two of tension-leg and Catenary mooring systems more.
- I use the strong moment of inertia to let you return from the state to incline, and to turn with the perpendicular string (テザー) which worked of the Tension leg mooring systems - tension.
- I let the fixed position leave it in Catenary mooring systems - reverse using the tension and a rigid small catenary 
- I install a weight of several tons in the middle of the mooring cable of the ballasted catenary - catenary type and I increase the tension of the cable and increase the rigidity of the marine floating form structure.
"Technically, the [theoretical] feasibility of deepwater [floating] wind turbines is not questioned as long-term survivability of floating structures has already been successfully demonstrated by the marine and offshore oil industries over many decades. However, the economics that allowed the deployment of thousands of offshore oil rigs have yet to be demonstrated for floating wind turbine platforms. For deepwater wind turbines, a floating structure will replace pile-driven monopoles or conventional concrete bases that are commonly used as foundations for shallow water and land-based turbines. The floating structure must provide enough buoyancy to support the weight of the turbine and to restrain pitch, roll and heave motions within acceptable limits. The capital costs for the wind turbine itself will not be significantly higher than current marinized turbine costs in shallow water. Therefore, the economics of deepwater wind turbines will be determined primarily by the additional costs of the floating structure and power distribution system, which are offset by higher offshore winds and close proximity to large load centers (e.g. shorter transmission runs). "
It is [update] however, the economic feasibility of shallow-water offshore wind technologies is more completely understood. as of 2009 With empirical data obtained from fixed-bottom installations off many countries for over a decade now, representative costs are well understood. Shallow-water turbines cost between 2.4 and 3 million United States dollars per megawatt to install, according to the World Energy Council.
It is [update], the practical feasibility and per-unit economics of deep-water, floating-turbine offshore wind is yet to be seen. as of 2009 Initial deployment of single full-capacity turbines in deep-water locations began only in 2009.
It is [update], new feasibility studies are supporting that floating turbines are becoming both technically and economically viable in the UK and global energy markets. as of 10 for 2,010 years "The higher up-front costs associated with developing floating wind turbines would be offset by the fact that they would be able to access areas of deep water off the coastlne of the UK where winds are stronger and reliable." 
The recent Offshore Valuation study conducted in the UK has confirmed that using just one third of the UK's wind, wave and tidal resource could generate energy equivalent to 1 billion barrels of oil per year; the same as North Sea oil and gas production. Some of the primary challenges are the coordination needed to develop transmission lines.
The plan that is suggested
Floating form windfarm
Ministry of the Environment plans a first Japanese proof experiment off Kabashima of Goto-shi, Nagasaki to put floating form ocean wind-generated electricity to practical use. At first I install testing equipment less than 100kW and conduct various investigations and aim at the development of the proof machine of the 2MW grade. As a result of Kyoto University becoming the secretariat, and having performed examination, basic design of the environmental assessment technique, it was judged to be suitable for floating form ocean wind-generated electricity, and here was chosen because local agreement was provided. The depth of the water is approximately 100m and, according to the topographical map of the sea bottom of the Coast Guard, can install a floating body. In addition, according to NEDO 局所風況 map, it is said that there is enough business possibility that are 7.0m/s (an altitude of 70m) as for the yearly average wind velocity. 
- Testing equipment
- Having three pieces of propellers of 11m in length, overall height 41 of 71m appear on the sea. I can serve approximately 70 households of annual power consumption. 
- Proof machine
- Having three pieces of propellers of 40m in length, overall height 100 of 180m appear on the sea. I can serve approximately 1,400 households of annual power consumption. 
The schedules of the plan are as follows. 
- The Heisei 23-24 year weather, walrus investigation, safe investigation, environmental assessment
- A Heisei 23-25 year design and proof machine production
- Heisei 25-27 year setting and proof startup
- Evaluations such as Heisei 26-27 year business characteristics
Furthermore, for a reconstruction aid of Fukushima that The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster with the Great East Japan Earthquake produced, floating form ocean wind-power plant is planned, and a part of the budget for proof examination is included in a supplementary budget in the third in 2011. The site proposed for construction is undecided, but the Iwaki-shi offing which the power transmission line of the Tokyo Electric Power Hirono thermal power station is available to is likely to be you. I aim at inviting production and the generation of the parts of approximately 20,000 points including a generator and the bearing, allied industry including construction, the maintenance. The construction of six 2MW grade wind turbines begins in 2013, and proof experiments such as the data collection, submarine cable transmission, system ream system are performed for 10 billion yen - 20 billion yen for five years until 2016 at the earliest.   plan to increase it to 80 engines by 2020. The company is decided by an open call for participants, and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, IHI, Fuji Heavy Industries, Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding, SHIMIZU CORP., Tokyo University are going to participate in it. 
in the United States
The US State of Maine solicited proposals in September 2010 to build the world's first floating, commercial wind farm. The RFP is seeking proposals for 25 MW of deep-water offshore wind capacity to supply power for 20-year long-term contract period via grid-connected floating wind turbines in the Gulf of Maine. Successful bidders must enter into long-term power supply contracts with either Central Maine Power Company (CMP), Bangor Hydro-Electric Company (BHE), or Maine Public Service Company (MPS). Proposals are due by May 2011 .
Some vendors who could bid on the proposed project have expressed concerns about dealing with the United States regulatory environment. Since the proposed site is in Federal waters, developers would need a permit from the Minerals Management Service, "which took more than seven years to approve a yet-to-be-built, shallow-water wind project off Cape Cod," and is also the agency under fire in June 2010 for lax oversight of deepwater oil drilling in Federal waters. "Uncertainty over regulatory hurdles in the United States ... is 'the Achilles heel' for Maine's ambitions for deepwater wind."
Floating design concepts
|Picture outside link|
WindFloat is a floating foundation for offshore wind turbines designed and patented by Principle Power. It is to be tested in autumn 2011 off the coast of Portugal with a Vestas V80 2MW wind turbine.
The foundation attempts to improve dynamic stability at shallow draft by dampening wave and turbine induced motion utilizing a tri-column triangular platform with the wind turbine positioned on only one of the three columns. The triangular platform is then "moored with 4 lines, 2 of which are connected to the column stabilizing the turbine, thus creating an asymmetric" mooring to increase stability and reduce motion.
As the wind shifts direction and changes the loads on the turbine and foundation, pumps will shift ballast water between foundation chambers.
Vestas turbines will be the standard for the project.
This technology could allow wind turbines to be sited in offshore areas that were previously considered inaccessible, areas having water depth exceeding 50 meters and more powerful wind resources than shallow-water offshore wind farms typically encounter.
Nautica Windpower uses a patented technology aimed at reducing system weight, complexity and costs for deep water sites. Scale model tests in open water have been conducted and structural dynamics modeling is under development for a multi-megawatt design. Nautica Windpower's Advanced Floating Turbine (AFT) uses a single mooring line and a downwind two-bladed rotor configuration that is deflection tolerant and aligns itself with the wind without an active yaw system. Two-bladed, downwind turbine designs that can accommodate flexibility in the blades will potentially prolong blade lifetime, diminish structural system loads and reduce offshore maintenance needs, yielding lower lifecycle costs. 
The International Energy Agency (IEA), under the auspices of their Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration (OC3) initiative, has completed high-level design and simulation modeling of the OC-3 Hywind system, a 5-MW wind turbine installed on a floating spar buoy, moored with catenary mooring lines, in water depth of 320 meters. The spar buoy platform would extend 120 meters below the surface and the mass of such a system, including ballast would exceed 7.4 million kg. 
Risøand 11 international partners started a 4-year program called DeepWind in October 2010 to create and test economical floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbines to 20MW. which improves The program is supported with€3m through EUs Seventh Framework Programme. Partners include TUDelft, SINTEF, Statoil and United States National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
VertiWind is a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine design created by Nenuphar http://www.nenuphar-wind.com/[ documents identification details information] and currently being tested by Technip http://www.technip.com/.[ documents identification details information] See http://www.nenuphar-wind.com/pressTemplate:Better source required required
- As the low generation means of the energy density, a lot of floating bodies are necessary
- The floating body wind-power plant does not have noise problems than the land, but needs a floating body of 10 times in comparison with a floating body nuclear power plant. But I get off with the floating body which is more less than 1/10 than a floating body solar power generation power station
- The floating body wind-generated electricity cost as of 2011 is before and after 20 yen /kwh.
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- ^ , The Offshore Valuation, 2010-11-08, accessed 2010-11-08.
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- Far Offshore Renewables: www.faroffre.com
- Nancy Stauffer (MIT): Giant wind turbines, floating out of sight. 2006 preliminary design with 5 MWe turbine units mounted 90 meters above the sea with massive 140 meter-diameter blades; MIT-NREL design.
- Statoil: Hywind floating wind turbine
- Nautica Windpower: Floating wind turbine system
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