2017년 1월 31일 화요일

Galapagos shark

Galapagos shark

Galapagos shark
Carcharinus galapagensis 1.jpg
Maintenance situation evaluation [1]
(IUCN Red List Ver.3.1 (2001))
Status iucn3.1 NT.svg

: Animal kingdom Animalia
The gate : Chordate gate Chordata
Rope : Cartilaginous fish rope Chondrichthyes
Eyes : Ground shark eyes Carcharhiniformes
Course : Ground shark department Carcharhinidae
The genus : Ground shark genus Carcharhinus
Kind : Galapagos shark C. galapagensis
Scientific name
Carcharhinus galapagensis (Snodgrass & Heller, 1905)
  • Carcharias galapagensis Snodgrass & Heller, 1905
Galapagos shark
Carcharhinus galapagensis distmap.png

Kind of the shark that Galapagos shark Carcharhinus galapagensis belongs to the ground shark genus. I inhabit the tropical ocean Island of the whole world. I reach 3.0m with large size. Because I do a form of general ground shark, distinction with the ドタブカ Oguro ground shark is difficult. The first dorsal fin is high, and the points that can distinguish this seed include that there is the first dorsal fin behind from the rear end of the pectoral the tip being slightly round.

I make a big group with an active predator. I eat bony fish and Cephalopoda of the bottom life, but the marine mammals come to aim at the large-scale individual mainly, too. I lay 4-16 仔 by developing in the womb every 2-3 years. It is bold, and curiosity is strong and is considered to be a dangerous shark because it is aggressive. The IUCN assumes the maintenance situation associate extinction anxiety.

Table of contents


I was listed as Carcharias galapagensis in was originally described as by 1905 by Robert Evans Snodgrass and Edmund Heller and was moved in the Carcharhinus genus afterwards. The Jolo type was a fetus of 65cm obtained from the Galapagos Islands, and specific epithet galapagensis was attached from here [2]; [3].

According to Garrick (1982), this seed constitutes a big triangular tooth and the core of "obscurus group" characterized by the upheaval between two dorsal fins in ground shark with ドタブカ [4]. This クレード is confirmed by the allozymic による molecules system analysis of 1992 [5], and a result to be sisters group of ドタブカ by the comprehensive analysis in 2012 is provided [6].


I am seen in the coral reef of the marine island.

Is seen mainly in tropical ocean Island; is Bermuda shorts American Virgin Islands, Madeira island, Cape Verde Ascension Island, Saint Helena Island, Sao Tome island in the Atlantic. It is Malagasy southern Walter's Shoal in the Indian Ocean. I am distributed over road how island, Mariana Islands, Marshall Islands, ケルマディック archipelago, common tree shrew island, toe Amo toe archipelago, Hawaiian Islands, Galapagos Islands, here island, レビジャヒヘド archipelago, Clipperton Island, the マルペロ island in the Pacific. There is few it around a continent, but from the eastern part of Iberian Peninsula, バハカリフォルニア Guatemala Colombia Australia slightly with the report [7].

I inhabit on the island shelf near the coast and like the topography where there are many ups and downs that a flow is fast, and the transparency is high [3]. I gather around marine rock and Umiyama [1]. I can cross the open sea from the island to the island, and it is reported that it is left the land as for 50km even at least. It is rare that 幼体 sinks more deeply than 25m, but the mature form is reported from depth of the water 180m [7]. I may make an excursion [8].


The distinction with other large ground shark is difficult.

With large size, the normal is around 3.0m. There is a record of up to 3.7m, but it is thought that this is suspicious and is really thought to be up to around 3.3m. The most weight record was a female of 3.0m at 195 kg [9]. The body is in the form of ground shark which is typical with a streamline thin. The rostrum is round, and the previous nose address is illegible widely. The eyes are round with intermediate size. As for the unilateral dentition, one midline dentition is it in an upper bottom in 13-15 (normal 14) together. The maxillary tooth is a big triangle, but the mandibular tooth is thinner. Both teeth have saw teeth [7].

The first dorsal fin is high and arises with a sickle type to some extent from the rear end of the pectoral. The second dorsal fin an anal fin and a pair living-in-; do it, and there is a low ridge between two dorsal fins. The pectoral is big, and the tip is sharp. In the back, the ventral slightly has a white obi in grayish brown in white, a side of the body. The edge of the fin becomes dark, but there is not the clear design [7]. A body is thin and can distinguish this kind from ドタブカ with the Oguro ground shark in two dorsal fins being higher in this kind and the thing that a tooth has a big by not having a sharp tip of the first dorsal fin too much. But it is difficult to confirm these characteristics in the outdoors. The number of the vertebras to this side of the tail and fins is 110-119 in 86-97, Oguro ground shark with this seed in 58, ドタブカ [3]; [7].


The individual of the Hawaii clay atoll.

It is one of the most abundant sharks in Asanami of islands [7]. Their schooner captures "mature form of" several hundred, and Snodgrass and Heller write that they were able to still see "several thousand" underwater in a mention article [2]. The population to inhabit the San Pedro Sao Paulo group of islands along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is done with one of the population "of the shark having highest density in" Atlantic [10]. I can make a big group, but it is thought that this is different from the true group [7].

By the fight between groups, I can remove a head strike gully shark, but am inferior to ツマジロ of the size [7]. When I was threatened, I perform a threat action similar to the Oguro ground shark. This arches with a back and takes down a pectoral with greatly opening a mouth and gills and is an action to swim about in right and left by exaggerated movement. In addition, I may take the action to wag a head in right and left to enlarge the view, and to discover a menace early [11]. Dermophthirius carcharhini of the monogenean attaching to skin is known as a parasitic worm [12]. Because Kasumi horse mackerel drops a parasitic worm of oneself, it is recorded that I put a body on the surface of a body of this seed [13].


I hunt in the bottom of the sea.

The bait is bony fish (eel grouper department, flatfish eyes, flathead filefish department) and a kite of the bottom life mainly. I may rarely eat superficial mackerel flying fish cuttlefishs. Ratios to assume a ray and small shark (including similar individual), Crustacea bait of the large-scale individual increases. Such as a leaf, coral, a stone, the garbage cannot digest it, and may swallow a thing [7]; [14]. An attack to Galapagos fur seal Galapagos sea lion marine iguana was observed in the Galapagos Islands [3]. According to Limbaugh (1963), 幼体 of this seed surrounded a boat at the time of fish collection in Clipperton Island and all preyed on a thing thrown away and showed hit a bottom and the oar of the boat, moving. These individuals did not react to rotenone and other shark repellents, and several bodies chased a boat to the shallows as a back appeared in the water [15].

Life cycle

The embryo which exhausted an egg yolk by developing in the womb like other ground shark switches yolk sac to the placenta. The female propagates every 2–3 year. As for the copulation, the male bite trace which I attached is seen in a female surface of a body of this time at the time of copulation in from January to March. I am estimated with approximately one year in a gestational period and the female moves to the growth ground of shallows in spring and gives birth. 産仔数 is 4-16. It is reported with 61-80cm at the time of the birth, but 幼体 of 57cm to swim in the east Pacific is observed, and it is thought that there is a local difference [14]. I stay in the shallows to avoid 幼体 being preyed on to a large mature form [3]. As for the male, as for 2.1-2.5m .6-8 years old, the female, the nature matures at 2.2-2.5m .7-9 years old. It is thought that it spreads until the sex exceeds 10 years old together and does not act [14]. The life is lowest; 24 years [3].

Relation with the person

The individual which was captured by longline fishing in Hawaii

Because curiosity tends to strongly persist in game, I am considered dangerous potentially. But the boat which there is of the long-term life anchors in the wolf island, Darwin Island at the north end of the Galapagos Islands, and diving is performed every week in the sea where this kind and dirt common hammerheads gather a lot, but the accident is not reported to date. A large number of individuals are known to gather at the time of approaching a person of swimming, and showing interest in a fin and a hand and fishery activity. Fitzroy (1839) is St. At the time of observation in Paul's Rocks, a large number of greedy sharks gather as soon as "fish hangs to the needle and write it with" which was robbed of its fish more than half in spite of resistance due to an oar and the uncus of the ship [10]. In the report from Clipperton Island by Limbaugh (1963), a small shark kept distance from "beginning and circled, but I gradually approached it and became aggressive...I tried shark various methods to be, but assume it useless ". This situation intensified before a diver came to have to finally evacuate from the water [15]. It is not easy to stop an excited shark, and a following shark steps forward even if push it aside physically; end with a result, and may cause madness strand bait when use a weapon [7]. Two attacks are recorded by an international shark damage list of 2008, and, as for one case, one has not already reached the death in Bermuda shorts a death example in American Virgin Islands [7]; [16].

Because propagative power is low, the IUCN assumes the maintenance situation associate extinction anxiety. There are not the data about the use of this seed, but I am fished in most of the distribution level by commercial fishery [1]. The meat is said that high quality [3]. It is avoided from a fisherman partly because I am caught in a net at the time of fishing in Hawaii and eat away a fish [17]. I am still seen commonly in Hawaii, but I may become extinct around Central America, and other area population needs caution because distribution is fragmentary. Included in the sanctuary marine in the ケルマディック archipelago and the distribution area of the Galapagos Islands [1].

In addition, in the Kobe of Kobe-shi City Suma Coast aquatic animal garden, the stuffed animal of this kind that has been ever bred with "the large water tank of the wave" of the aquatic animal garden is displayed as a specimen.


  1. ^ a b c d "Carcharhinus galapagensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2007. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 2003. April 26, 2009 reading. 
  2. ^ a b Snodgrass, R.E. and Heller, E. (January 31, 1905). "Papers from the Hopkins-Stanford Galapagos Expedition, 1898–1899. XVII. Shore fishes of the Revillagigedo, Clipperton, Cocos and Galapagos Islands.." It is 333–427. Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Science 6 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Bester, C. Biological Profiles: Galapagos Shark. Florida Museum of Natural History Ichthyology Department. Retrieved on April 26, 2009.
  4. ^ Garrick, J.A.F. (1982). "Sharks of the genus Carcharhinus". NOAA Technical Report, NMFS CIRC-445.
  5. ^ Naylor, G.J.P. (1992). "The phylogenetic relationships among requiem and hammerhead sharks: inferring phylogeny when thousands of equally most parsimonious trees result." Cladistics 8 (4): 295–318. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.1992.tb00073.x. 
  6. ^ Naylor, G.J.; Caira, J.N.; Jensen, K.; Rosana, K.A.; Straube, N.; Lakner, C. (2012). "Elasmobranch phylogeny: A mitochondrial estimate based on 595 species". In Carrier, J.C.; Musick, J.A.; Heithaus, M.R., eds. The Biology of Sharks and Their Relatives (second ed.). CRC Press. pp. 31–57. ISBN 1-4398-3924-7. http://prosper.cofc.edu/~sharkevolution/pdfs/Naylor_et_al_Carrier%20Chapter%202.pdf. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Compagno, L.J.V. (1984). Sharks of the World: An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Shark Species Known to Date. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization. pp. 473–475. ISBN 92-5 - 101,384-5. 
  8. ^ "shark ray illustrated book アンドレアフェッラーリ (work) of shark guidebook - world", アントネッラフェッラーリ (work), Toru Taniuchi (the supervision), Andrea Ferrari (the original work), Antonella Ferrari (the original work), Atsushi Mifune (translation), Tsuyoshi Yamamoto (translation) Hankyu communications
  9. ^ Castro, J.I. (2011). The Sharks of North America. Oxford University Press. pp. 417–420. ISBN 9780195392944. 
  10. ^ a b Edwards, A.J. and Lubbock, H.R. (February 23, 1982). "The Shark Population of Saint Paul's Rocks." Copeia (American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists) 1982 (1): 223–225. doi: 10.2307/1444304. JSTOR 1444304. 
  11. ^ Martin, R.A. (March 2007). "A review of shark agonistic displays: comparison of display features and implications for shark–human interactions." Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology 40 (1): 3–34. doi: 10.1080/10236240601154872. 
  12. ^ Rand, T.G., Wiles, M. and Odense, P. (April 1986). "Attachment of Dermophthirius carcharhini (Monogenea: Microbothriidae) to the Galapagos Shark Carcharhinus galapagensis." Transactions of the American Microscopical Society (American Microscopical Society) 105 (2): 158–169. doi: 10.2307/3226388. JSTOR 3226388. 
  13. ^ Papastamatiou, Y.P., Meyer, C.G. and Maragos, J.E. (June 2007). "Sharks as cleaners for reef fish." Coral Reefs 26 (2): 277. doi: 10.1007/s00338-007-0197-y. 
  14. ^ a b c Wetherbee, B.M., Crow, G.L. and Lowe, C.G. (1996). "Biology of the Galapagos shark, Carcharhinus galapagensis, in Hawai'i." Environmental Biology of Fishes 45 (3): 299–310. doi: 10.1007/BF00003099. 
  15. ^ a b Limbaugh, C. (1963). "Field notes on sharks." In Gilbert, P.W.. Sharks and Survival. Boston: D. C. Heath Canada, Ltd. pp. 63–94. ISBN 0-669-24646-8. 
  16. ^ ISAF Statistics on Attacking Species of Shark. International Shark Attack File, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida. Retrieved on April 22, 2009.
  17. ^ "shark watching" Victor, G. Springer (work), Joey, P. Gold (work), Victor G. Springer (the original work), Joy P. Gold (the original work), Kazuhiro Nakaya (translation) Heibonsha Publishers Ltd.

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