2016년 12월 31일 토요일



Hemiscyllium ocellatum Océanopolis.jpg
Maintenance situation evaluation [1]
(IUCN Red List Ver.3.1 (2001))
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg

: Animal kingdom Animalia
The gate : Chordate gate Chordata
Rope : Cartilaginous fish rope Chondrichthyes
Eyes : Carpet shark eyes Orectolobiformes
Course : Carpet shark department Hemiscylliidae
The genus : Mon luck carpet shark genus Hemiscyllium
Kind : マモンツキテンジクザメ H. ocellatum
Scientific name
Hemiscyllium ocellatum
(Bonnaterre, 1788)
  • Squalus ocellatus Bonnaterre, 1788
  • Squalus oculatus Banks & Solander, 1827
Epaulette shark
Hemiscyllium ocellatum distmap.png

Kind of the shark that マモンツキテンジクザメ Hemiscyllium ocellatum belongs to carpet shark department. I am called the epaulet shark from fame. I inhabit Australia and the shallows of New Guinea. The color of the body is brown, and there is a big black crest behind the pectoral. A tail is long with a slim figure, and the full length is less than 1m. It is "" ことができる to walk in an oar-formed pectoral and ventral fin in durability, shallows and the bottom of the sea.

It is nocturnal and preys on a bottom straight invertebrate and a small fish in a coral reef and a tide pool. Oxygen of the tide pool is easy to decrease, but this seed can survive in the anoxic environment for one hour, and it is thought that it is a strong vertebrate for decrease of the dissolved O2 most. It is oviparous and lays eggs every 2 weeks over from August to December. I am popular with an aquarium and an aquarium. The IUCN estimates the maintenance situation as slight concern.

Table of contents


In 1788, I was listed in Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature by French natural historian Pierre Joseph VONA tail. The original scientific name was Squalus ocellatus, but was moved to current mon luck carpet shark genus Hemiscyllium afterwards. The type specimen was captured in immature males of 35cm in the suburbs of Cook town of Queensland [2]. As other fame with "itar shark", "blind shark" (this name is used for シロボシホソメテンジクザメ Brachaelurus waddi) [3]. By the form system analysis of 2002 the system of the mon luck carpet shark genus many; diverged, and was not able to identify the most closely related kind [4].


I am distributed over the Australian northern coasts from the New Guinea southern coast to Sydney [5]. When several thousand individuals inhabit the coral reef around Heron Island (English version), a lot of populations in particular are estimated in Capricorn-Bunker 礁群 of the Great Barrier Reef [1]. In addition, is uncertain data, but from the Malaysia Sumatra Solomon Islands with the report [2]. I inhabit Asanami where is shallower than 50m and develop well in the shallows as a body barely soaks. Like the shallows of a tide pool and the coral reef, the top of the elkhorn coral genus [2]; [3].


A big black crest in the pectoral rear is the origin of the name.

The health is occupied in the peduncle that the above is half thin of the full length into long pieces. The rostrum is round, and the nostril is located at the tip with one pair of short mustache briefly. A groove runs for a tongue from a nostril. The dentition is 21-32 with 26-35, lower jaw with upper jaw. The tooth is small, and the base is large and has a triangular tip. The eyes are located above with an oval, and a big spout-hole is located in the bottom. The gill slit approaches the fourth and the fifth gill slit with five pairs very much small [2].

A pectoral, the ventral fin is round and is thick in meatiness widely. The size of the first second dorsal fin is about the same and is in the posterior body together. The anal fin is low; of the tail and fins there is it up ahead. The tail and fins are only superior lobes, and there are a body and incision clear approximately parallel in the neighborhood of tip. As for the mature form, the back is it in a sparse spot and light vertical stripes by brown from beige. Behind the pectoral, there is a considerably large-scale black crest bordered white, and fame "Epaulette" (epaulet) is derived from this. 幼体 has a monochrome lateral stripe in a body and the whole fin, but this is for growth, and disappear [5]; [6]. Full length is usually 70-90cm; with the report of up to 107cm [3] [6]. The individuals of Heron Island do not exceed 76cm, 900 g [1].


Wiggle a body while pushing the ground with an oar-formed pectoral and ventral fin as adaptation to the complicated coral reef topography; and "" ことができる to walk. A case to escape swimming from danger is important, and the swimming speed is not so fast. The cartilage of the anti-fin separates in comparison with other sharks and reduces and makes it possible to use a fin like limbs [7]. By this movement, I crawl out from water and can go back and forth in the lone tide pool [8]. It is thought that this is convergent evolution with the dolosse such as the salamander and is supposed when equal to the action that became the board fence that the first ground sex vertebrates evolve [9]. It is nocturnal and becomes active at the time of ebb tide mainly. If I may take a rest between coral under a shop, and the head hides, I do not seem to mind it even if other parts protrude [2]. Considered that I appear on the sandy area and the coral reef which sometimes opened out and stand still towards a current (rheotaxis), but this is for breathing and the monitoring of the predator [10].

I am targeted for the predation of the large animal including other sharks [5]. The color of the body becomes the protective coloration [6], and it is supposed that the spot is effective in missing the attention of the predator as eyes-formed crest [2]. All individuals almost catch the プラニザ larval parasitism of the pus stag beetle. This larva attaches to around copulation device and total excretion hole or the mouth and gills and makes sucking blood. The damage by the parasitism is not a thing as I have an influence on the health condition at all small [11]. There is nematode Proleptus australis [15] which is parasitic on Sheina orri [14], the gastrointestinal tract of the shellfish insect attaching to the Haemogregarina hemiscyllii [13] gills of the protozoan infected with クドア [12], blood of the viscous liquid sporozoan which is parasitic on a skeletal muscle as other parasitic worms.

Adaptation to hypoxia environment

I can live in the hypoxia environment for several hours.

When the tide went down in the night, I am often left behind by the tide pool of shallows. The oxygen content of water of the tide pool decreases by the breathing of the internal creature more than 80% during single night. This seed fits this hypoxia environment, and only normal 5% can live more than three hours without losing action responsiveness in the water that does not include oxygen. I lived experimentally in the water of water temperature 30 degrees Celsius to hardly include oxygen for one hour. This is more specific than most animals being able to tolerate a hypoxia condition only under low temperature [16].

The reply to hypoxia environment is controlled by adenosine, and the number of times of a heartbeat, the breathing suddenly decreases [17]. Blood vessel is expanded to carry much blood by brain, heart, and the blood pressure falls to 1/2. Unlike bony fish and four pairs of animals, blood velocity is kept a fixed, and the rise in blood sugar level does not happen [18]. The ATP consumption of the brain falls to 1/3 in comparison with brain of truth bones then [16]. This depends on what can control some metabolism of the brain, and is performed by the method that inactivates an exercise nucleus with maintaining the function of the perception nucleus. I can in this way secure enough ATP with keeping responsiveness to environment to prevent nerve cell death [19].


In opportunistic predators, I eat bottom life Crustacea, Polychaeta, a small fish. 90% of game were Polychaeta and crabs, and, in Heron Island, in 幼体, the Polychaeta, the mature form ate crab mainly. 摂餌行動 is performed anytime, but becomes active so that it gets dark with the daybreak in particular [9]. I depend on sense of smell and an electric receptor and breathe in bait in search of secret bait [2] mainly by opening oral cavity of the meatiness [9]. While I am looking for bait, I occasionally dig up sediment in the head and a rostrum and spit out the gravel which I breathed in with bait from gill cleft [2]. 5–10 share room is good and chews bait and, unlike other sharks, eats [9]. I knock down a tooth and form a plane and can use it to crunch a hard husk of the game [5].

Life cycle

The copulation always happens under the breeding, but is performed under the nature for from July to December [1]; [20]. Because a female bites in pursuit of a male, the mating action begins. The male bites to a female pectoral and lets a body comply and inserts a one copulation device in a total excretion hole afterwards. As for the copulation, degree continues in 1 and a half minutes [21].

It is oviparous and lays eggs for from August to December. The female lays two (rarely four) egg cases every 14 days and becomes 20-50 in the year. As for the egg case, a fry of 14-16cm hatches approximately 10cm in length, 4cm in width in 120-130 days. The first growth is slow, but I gradually accelerate and become the growth rate like the 5cm/ year three months later. The nature matures at 54-64cm, approximately 7 years old the sex together [1]; [9].

Relation with the person

This seed which is displayed in an aquarium

I may bite when I catch it, but do not give the harm to a person. Because it is movement being slow and the appearance that seems to be subdued, I am captured easily by a swimmer and may be hurt in the process. It is displayed in many aquariums such as United States, Canada Australia to adapt itself easily in breeding environment [2]. Scott W. It is mentioned as shark "which is most suitable for" home water tank in 1 article of Aquarium Fish Magazine by Michael. The breeding lower breeding is possible, too. I can breed even a water tank of the 510L (135 gallons) degree, but water tanks more than 680L (180 gallons) are desirable for the individual which grew up. Keeping together is not recommended to have possibilities to eat other fish [22].

Minimum, as for the bycatch by the aquarium-related business and fishery, as for the influence, the IUCN evaluates the maintenance situation with slightness concern without being seen well in the Australian sea near the shore, and becoming a target of commerce fishery and the fishing. The Australian area along the shore is protected as an approximately marine park, but it is thought that is affected by habitat destruction and the destructive fishery, indiscriminate hunting by the local fisherman on the coast New Guinea; regionally associate; said to be endangered [1].


  1. ^ a b c d e f Bennett, M.B. & Kyne, P.M. (SSG Australia & Oceania Regional Workshop, March 2003) (2003). "Hemiscyllium ocellatum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. November 4, 2014 reading.  )
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Compagno, L.J.V. (2002). Sharks of the World: An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Shark Species Known to Date (Volume 2). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization. pp. 181–182. ISBN 92-5 - 104,543-7. 
  3. ^ a b c Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2009). "Hemiscyllium ocellatum" in FishBase. May 2009 version.
  4. ^ Goto, T. (2001). "Comparative Anatomy, Phylogeny and Cladistic Classification of the Order Orectolobiformes" (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii). Memoirs of the Graduate School of Fisheries Science, Hokkaido University 48 (1): 1–101. 
  5. ^ a b c d Bester, C. Biological Profiles: Epaulette Shark. Florida Museum of Natural History Ichthyology Department. Retrieved on May 14, 2009.
  6. ^ a b c Ferrari, A. and Ferrari, A. (2002). Sharks. FireFly Books. p. 119. ISBN 1-55209-629-7. 
  7. ^ Goto, T., Nishida, K. and Nakaya, K. (Sep 1999). "Internal morphology and function of paired fins in the epaulette shark, Hemiscyllium ocellatum." Ichthyological Research 46 (3): 281–287. doi: 10.1007/BF02678514. 
  8. ^ Martin, R.A. Why Do Sharks Expose Their Dorsal Fins? ReefQuest Centre for Shark Research. Retrieved on October 4, 2009.
  9. ^ a b c d e Martin, R.A. Intertidal Zone: Epaulette Shark. ReefQuest Centre for Shark Research. Retrieved on May 14, 2009.
  10. ^ Peach, M.B. (2002). "Rheotaxis by epaulette sharks, Hemiscyllium ocellatum (Chondrichthyes: Hemiscylliidae), on a coral reef flat." Australian Journal of Zoology 50 (4): 407–414. doi: 10.1071/ZO01081. 
  11. ^ Heupel1, M.R. and Bennett, M.B. (Feb 1, 1999). "The occurrence, distribution and pathology associated with gnathiid isopod larvae infecting the epaulette shark, Hemiscyllium ocellatum." International Journal for Parasitology 29 (2): 321–330. doi: 10.1016/S0020-7519(98) 00218-5. PMID 10221633. 
  12. ^ Heupel, M.R. and Bennett, M.B. (1996). "A myxosporean parasite (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) in the skeletal muscle of epaulette sharks, Hemiscyllium ocellatum (Bonnaterre), from the Great Barrier Reef." Journal of Fish Diseases 19 (2): 189–191. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2761.1996.tb00700.x. 
  13. ^ McKiernana, J.P., Gruttera, A.S. and Davies, A.J. (Jan 2005). "Reproductive and feeding ecology of parasitic gnathiid isopods of epaulette sharks (Hemiscyllium ocellatum) with consideration of their role in the transmission of a haemogregarine." International Journal for Parasitology 35 (1): 19–27. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2004.10.016. PMID 15619512. 
  14. ^ Bennett, M.B., Heupel, M.R., Bennett, S.M. and Parker, A.R. (Mar 1997). "Sheina orri (Myodocopa: Cypridinidae), an ostracod parasitic on the gills of the epaulette shark, Hemiscyllium ocellatum" (Elasmobranchii: Hemiscyllidae). International Journal for Parasitology 27 (3): 275–281. doi: 10.1016/S0020-7519(96) 00201-9. 
  15. ^ Heupel, M.R. and Bennett, M.B. (1998). "Infection of the epaulette shark, Hemiscyllium ocellatum (Bonnaterre), by the nematode parasite Proleptus australis Bayliss" (Spirurida: Physalopteridae). Journal of Fish Diseases 21 (6): 407–414. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2761.1998.00121.x. 
  16. ^ a b Val, A.L., de Almeida-Val, V.M.F. and Randall, D.J. (2005). Fish Physiology: The Physiology of Tropical Fish. Academic Press. pp. 584–588. ISBN 0-12-350445-7. 
  17. ^ Renshaw, G.M.C., Kerrisk, C.B. and Nilsson, G.E. (2002). "The role of adenosine in the anoxic survival of the epaulette shark, Hemiscyllium ocellatum." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B 131 (2): 133–141. doi: 10.1016/S1096-4959(01) 00484-5. 
  18. ^ Wise, G., Mulvey, J.M. and Renshaw, G.M.C.. "Hypoxia tolerance in the epaulette shark" (Hemiscyllium ocellatum). Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Comparative Experimental Biology 281 (1): 1–5. 
  19. ^ Mulveya, J.M. and Renshaw, G.M.C. (Aug 18, 2000). "Neuronal oxidative hypometabolism in the brainstem of the epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum) in response to hypoxic pre-conditioning." Neuroscience Letters 290 (1): 1–4. doi: 10.1016/S0304-3940(00) 01321-5. PMID 10925160. 
  20. ^ Heupel, M.R., Whittier, J.M. and Bennett, M.B. (1999). "Plasma steroid hormone profiles and reproductive biology of the epaulette shark, Hemiscyllium ocellatum." Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Comparative Experimental Biology 284 (5): 586–594. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-010X(19991001)284:5<586:: AID-JEZ14>3.0.CO; 2-B. 
  21. ^ West, J.G. and Carter, S. (1990). "Observations on the development and growth of the epaulette shark Hemiscyllium ocellatum (Bonnaterre) in captivity." It is 111–117. Journal of Aquariculture and Aquatic Science 5 
  22. ^ Michael, S.W. (2004). "Sharks at Home." It is pp. Aquarium Fish Magazine March 2004 20–29 

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