2017년 2월 14일 화요일

Rufus Wilmot grease Waldo

Rufus Wilmot grease Waldo

Rufus Wilmot grease Waldo
Rufus Wilmot Griswold
Print, 1855 of grease Waldo by minor Kilborn Kellogg Co.
Nom de plume Ludwig
Birth (1815-02-13) 1815February 13
The United States of AmericaVermontBesson
Death 1857August 27(1857-08-27) (42 years old)
New YorkNew YorkCity
Occupation EditorLiterary criticAuthor
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Rufus Wilmot grease Waldo (British: for Rufus Wilmot Griswold, from February 13, 1815 to August 27, 1857) is person of selection publication, editor, poet, commentator from United States of America Vermont. I left the house at the age of 15 years old and, at Philadelphia City, New York City, other places, worked as a journalist, an editor, a commentator. I built reputation of the strong literature partly because I published a selection called "American poet and poetry" in 1842. This selection was the comprehensive for those days and gathered things to think about in American poetry if the best. They published the revised edition and a similar selection in the latter half of the life, but most of poets who placed it did not attract attention afterwards. When a work wanted to be placed in one of these selections, many writers expected it, but criticized it about the character that grease Waldo was irritated by strictly. Grease Waldo got married three times. The first wife died young and was over by a divorce that the second marriage was publicized and caused a discussion, and, as for the third wife, a divorce of the front of it left his cause after it was hardly withdrawal.

Edgar alane Poe was the person that the poetry was placed in the selection of grease Waldo, but placed a critical reaction to make a problem which poet was placed. I caused competition relations among two people in this, and grease Waldo grew big with the salary that a magazine was higher in than a salary of Pau as an editor of "the magazines of Graham" to the place where it was to a successor of Pau. These two people competed to attract poet Francis Sargent Ozy good の mind later. After two people were not reconciled with each other about the difference in opinion, and Poe died a mysterious death in 1849, grease Waldo wrote the obituary notice which did not sympathize with Poe. I insisted that grease Waldo was a literature inheritance executor of a will chosen Poe as and continued until eight years later when grease Waldo died including exercise to hurt reputation of Poe.

I thought that grease Waldo was a specialist in American poetry by oneself and was the person who recommended that I included it in a school subject early. I supported the introduction of the Copyright Act and gave testimony for a publishing trade in the American United States Congress, but did not hesitate about making the pirated edition of the work of another person. The editor of the friend said, "I steal the fastest thing while I showed a long angry dispute most noisily" (as for him) [1].

Table of contents

The life and career

Early life

Rufus Wilmot grease Waldo was born near Rutland of Vermont on February 13, 1815. As for father, Rufus grease Waldo, mother were Debborah (maiden name ワス); [2]. I was brought up in [3], the home of the strict Calvinism [4] in a small town called Besson. It was the twelfth of 14 brothers, and father was a farmer and a shoemaker [3]. In 1822, the family sold a farm of Besson and moved to Hubbard squash ton nearby [5]. As for the childhood of grease Waldo, it was complicated and was a whim, rash character [6]. I left the house at the age of 15 years old and named oneself "the outcast who wandered in mind, the world that liked loneliness, and did not have the pleasure in homeless people" [7].

Grease Waldo moved to New York Albany and lived with the journalist of the 22-year-old fluter called George C Foster. Foster was a known writer with a book called "New York to look at with a gas light" [3]. Grease Waldo lived together with Foster until 17 years old, and these two people might be love [7]. When grease Waldo left, I wrote the letter which Foster asked to come back and completed it saying "come to me if you loved me" [8]. In 1830, grease Waldo was going to enter the Rensselaer school, but it was not admitted that I took a class after having been caught by a certain professor to commit a practical joke [9].

Grease Waldo of about 1840

Early work experience and the first marriage

After having worked as a disciple of Buddha of the printing offices for a short term, grease Waldo moved to New York Syracuse [7] and published the newspaper titled "a porcupine" with several friends there. This newspaper intended for people of the land about a thing memorized as a bad review of simple guts later intentionally [10].

I moved to the New York city in 1836 and, in March of the year, was introduced to 19-year-old Caroline Sarh and got married afterwards [11]. Grease Waldo was employed as an editor in New York area by various publishing companies. I considered whether I ran for election as a Whig in October, but the support of the party was not got [12]. In 1837, I got the license of the clergyman of the Baptist, but did not become the denomination which did not change for life [13].

Grease Waldo married Caroline in August, 1837 [14], and two daughters were born. After the second daughter was born, grease Waldo left a family in New York and moved to the Philadelphia city [15]. Departure of November 27, 1840 was a really idiopathic thing [16] and stopped a job of the "New York Tribune" paper which I gave of Holles Greeley and left the collection of books of several thousand [15]. I joined the staff of the "daily standard" paper of Philadelphia and built the reputation as the literary critic and came to be known for the brutality and tenaciousness [13].

After a wife of New York delivered the son who was the third child on November 6, 1842, grease Waldo visited the basis of the wife. Three days later, grease Waldo who came back to Philadelphia was informed of that a wife and a son died [17]. Grease Waldo who received a big shock went on a trip by a train with her coffin and continued refusing that I left the side for 30 hours. I kissed her lips when I invited you so that the passenger of the friend lied to him a little and answered it by hugging her. Two children cried at the side, too [18]. After other attendants left after a funeral service, refused that left the graveyard, and was pressed a relative, and at last left it [17]; [19]. I wrote a long blank verse to give to Caroline entitled "five days" and placed it in the "New York Tribune" paper of November 16, 1842 [20]. Grease Waldo often dreamed of being able to meet again without it being thought that Caroline died [17]. 40 days passed from a burial, and grease Waldo entered her joss house room, and one bunch cut the hair and kissed a sum and lips and cried for hours. It was about the next that passed for 30 hours that a certain friend discovered grease Waldo near her [7].

A person of selection publication and commentator

"An American poet and cover for poetry" 1855

In 1842, grease Waldo published American book of verse "American poet and poetry" of 476 pages [15]. This book presented it to Washington Allston of the poet in painters [21]. Grease Waldo collected the poetry of more than 80 poets [22], and poetry 17 parts of lady a シゴーニー, thing three parts of Edgar alane Pau, thing 45 of Charles フェノ Hoffman entered [13]. Hoffman was a close friend of grease Waldo, and the space where was more more than double than which other poets was given [23]. Grease Waldo wanted to collect the memorandum of "the recently dead celebrity", and, "a biographical yearbook" and "the jewel box of the American poetess," "poetesses of the United States" came to supervise many selections "an American prose poet" [24].

While grease Waldo collected the materials of "the American prose poet" for 1842 through 1845, I found a work of Holles Vinnie Wallace who placed it in the literature magazines such as "Burton's" in the nom de plume called the William lander in those days. Wallace declined to be placed in the selection, but two people exchanged many letters in friend personality, next time [25]. Wallace will write "generals of the army (1847) of Napoleon and the empire" in place of grease Waldo afterwards [26].

"The American prose poet" published in 1847 was prepared for to compete in particular with the resemblance selection which Cornelius Matthews and Evert Augustus die Kinch produced [27]. Grease Waldo was that came to competition-related, grease Waldo expected it with two people by this prose book of verse. When it was published, I wrote, "the young United States will become radical", and grease Waldo sent it to publisher James Thomas Fields of Boston [28]. When I prepared for the selection, grease Waldo sent a letter to a poet of the life time that I was going to place and you should pick up which poetry or demanded suggestion and gathered information for biography-like sketching [29].

In 1843, grease Waldo launched the annual literary arts magazine "opal" that attracted an essay, a novel, poetry. Nathaniel parka Willis edited the first issue and was released in the autumn of 1844 [30]. Grease Waldo was an editor of the "Sata D evening post" paper for a while [31], and "the lease of the cypress tree published a book of verse in 1844, too". At the time of when "the death is happy" "death of the young girl of grease Waldo," the poetry of the title such as "a sleep of the death" emphasized will of inevitability and the mourning of the death [32]. The different book of verse "ballad of the Christian and other poetry" were published in 1844, and "the United States society of the times of coat of the republican form of government or Washington" of the nonfiction was published again in 1854 [33]. As for this book, it was intended to put the event of the times when George Washington was the President, but mixed it to be hard to distinguish a historic fact and the doubtful tradition of the source by reading [34]. During this period, grease Waldo might act as the preacher whom I sometimes preached a sermon [35] and might get a honorary degree from the シャートレフ college of the Baptist system university of Illinois. I will obtain a nickname called "clergyman Dr. grease Waldo" in this [36].

The second marriage

On August 20, 1845, grease Waldo married Jewish woman Charlotte Mair's [37]. As for Charlotte, 42 years old, grease Waldo were 33 years old [38]. There was worry about the religious difference of two people, but pressure was sprinkled to her aunt to get married [37]. Because this difference was a strong thing, one of the friends of grease Waldo called a wife of grease Waldo "only with a small Jew woman" [39]. I understood, she "could not become a wife by a bit physical misfortune" at the night of the wedding ceremony if it depended on biographer Joey bay reply of grease Waldo [40]. I explain that biographer Kenneth Silverman of Edgar alane Pau was not able to have sex [38]. Grease Waldo thought that this marriage was invalid and thought that it was not more effective than when "or or one nature was doubtful than there was the ceremony happened in the same-sex interval it is vague" [40]. Still two people moved to South Carolina Charleston that was a country of birth of Charlotte and they were to sleep in another room, but lived a life under the same roof. All two of them are satisfied with the situation; in a wound, the end of April, 1846 she "is divided forever again together...It let a lawyer write the contract which got a divorce virtually [41]. この契約書ではグリスウォルドの再婚を禁じており、その娘のキャロラインがマイアーズの家族の所に留まることと引き換えに1,000ドルを支払うと定めていた[42]。 この別居後グリスウォルドは即座にフィラデルフィアに戻った。













当時のアメリカ文学シーンの中で、グリスウォルドは突飛で、独善的で、うぬぼれで、悪意ある者と見られた[13]。歴史家のペリー・ミラーは、「グリスウォルドは悪賢さの時代に来たのと同じくらい悪賢くあろうとしている。彼が実際に存在していると証明できる十分な書類もなく、我々は彼がチャールズ・ディケンズのもっともらしくもない発明の1つと想像することもできる」と記した[73]。後の『アメリカの散文詩人』や『アメリカの女流詩人』のような選集は、グリスウォルドを文学の独裁者にすることに役立った。彼の力が大きくなるのを恐れながら、詩人はその承認を求めた[74]。しかし、彼に印象を与えようとしたとしても、幾人かの詩人はグリスウォルドの性格について意見を出した。アン・S・スティーブンスは彼を2つの顔を持つものと呼び、「うまれつき真実を語れない」ものだと言った[75]。グリスウォルドの友人であっても、彼が全くの嘘つきであることを知っており、「それはグリスウォルドのこと? あるいは真実?」というような言い方があった[76]。別の友人は「私が出逢った中で最も怒りっぽく悪意がある男の一人」と呼んだことがあった[75]。作家のコーネリアス・マシューズは1847年に、グリスウォルドは作家を利用するために釣り上げているのだと記し、「哀れで小さく無垢の魚は」「グリスウォルドの釣り針を」避けなければならないと警告していた[77]。1843年1月28日、フィラデルフィアの「サタディ・ミュージアム」に匿名で掲載されたグリスウォルドの選集に関する書評の1つは、ポーが書いたものと考えられており[78]、「グリスウォルドの運命はどうなるのか? 忘れられるのか、彼が傷つけ侮辱した者達による場合を除いて、彼は忘却の彼方に沈んでいく。彼が存在したと告げる印を残すこともなく。あるいは、彼が今後も語られるとすれば、その信頼を悪用した不誠実な従僕として述べられるかである」と書かれていた[79]


But stay, here comes Tityrus Griswold, and leads on
The flocks whom he first plucks alive, and then feeds on—
A loud-cackling swarm, in whose feathers warm dressed,
He goes for as perfect a — swan as the rest.[80]










"ルートヴィヒ" 死亡記事









  • 『伝記の年鑑』(Biographical Annual、1841年)[113]
  • 『アメリカの詩人と詩』(The Poets and Poetry of America、1842年、その後数回版を重ねたものの初版)[15]
  • 『アメリカ女流詩人の宝石箱』(Gems from American Female Poets、1842年)[81]
  • 『学校で使うためのアメリカの詩における読み』(Readings in American Poetry for the Use of Schools、1843年)[81]
  • 『アメリカ文学の好奇心』(Curiosities of American Literature、1844年)[81]
  • 『19世紀イングランドの詩人と詩』(The Poets and Poetry of England in the Nineteenth Century、1844年)[114]
  • 『ジョン・ミルトンの散文詩』(The Prose Works of John Milton、1845年)[115]
  • 『イングランドの詩人と詩』(The Poets and Poetry of England、1845年)[113]
  • 『感傷の詩』(Poetry of the Sentiments、1846年)[113]
  • 『救い主の生におけるシーン』(Scenes in the Life of the Savior、1846年)[113]
  • 『アメリカの散文詩人』(Prose Writers of America、1847年)[113]
  • 『アメリカの女流詩人』(Female Poets of America、1848年)[113]
  • 『イングランドとアメリカの神聖な詩人』(The Sacred Poets of England and America、1848年)[113]
  • 『アメリカ詩のギフトの葉』(Gift Leaves of American Poetry、1849年)[113]
  • 『花の詩』(Poetry of the Flowers、1850年)[113]
  • 『感情の贈り物』(The Gift of Affection、1853年)[113]
  • 『花の贈り物、あるいは愛のリース』(Gift of Flowers, or Love's Wreath、1853年)[113]
  • 『愛の贈り物』(Gift of Love、1853年)[113]
  • 『感情の贈り物』(Gift of Sentiment、1854年)[113]

  • 『糸杉のリース: 慰みの書』(The Cypress Wreath: A Book of Consolation、1844年)[113]
  • 『キリスト教バラードの挿絵入り本』(Illustrated Book of Christian Ballads、1844年)[113]


  • 『共和制のコート、あるいはワシントンの時代のアメリカ社会』(The Republican Court or, American Society in the Days of Washington、1854年)[33]


  1. ^ a b Moss, 80–81
  2. ^ Griswold, Glenn E. (1943). The Griswold Family England-America, vol 3. Rutland, VT: Griswold Family Association of America. p. 131. 
  3. ^ a b c Silverman, 212
  4. ^ Meyers, 125
  5. ^ Bayless, 5–6
  6. ^ Bayless, 7
  7. ^ a b c d Tomc, Sandra. "Poe and His Circle". Collected in The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe, Kevin J. Hayes, ed. Cambridge University Press, 2002: 26. ISBN 0-521-79727-6.
  8. ^ Bayless, 10
  9. ^ Bayless, 8
  10. ^ Bayless, 12–13
  11. ^ Bayless, 15
  12. ^ Bayless, 17–18
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Meyers, 126
  14. ^ Bayless, 20
  15. ^ a b c d e f Silverman, 213
  16. ^ Quinn, 350
  17. ^ a b c Silverman, 217
  18. ^ Bayless, 64
  19. ^ Bayless, 65
  20. ^ Bayless, 66
  21. ^ a b Pattee, 279
  22. ^ Sova, 197
  23. ^ Pattee, 494
  24. ^ Quinn, 350–351
  25. ^ Hatvary, George E. Wallace, Horace Binney, 1817–1852: Criticism and Interpretation Ardent Media: 20. ISBN 0-8057-7190-5.
  26. ^ Hatvary, George E. Wallace, Horace Binney, 1817–1852: Criticism and Interpretation. Ardent Media, 1977: 11. ISBN 0-8057-7190-5.
  27. ^ a b c Miller, 169
  28. ^ Widmer, Edward L. Young America: The Flowering of Democracy in New York. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999: 121. ISBN 0-19-514062-1.
  29. ^ a b Pattee, 391
  30. ^ a b Bayless, 83
  31. ^ a b c Oberholtzer, Ellis Paxson. The Literary History of Philadelphia. Philadelphia: George W. Jacobs & Co., 1906: 298. ISBN 1-932109-45-5.
  32. ^ Kennedy, J. Gerald. Poe, Death, and the Life of Writing. Yale University Press, 1987: 66–67. ISBN 0-300-03773-2.
  33. ^ a b Bayless, 234
  34. ^ Bryan, William Alfred. George Washington in American Literature 1775–1865. New York: Columbia University Press, 1952: 103.
  35. ^ Bayless, 93
  36. ^ No records from the college authenticating this claim exist. Bayless, 274
  37. ^ a b Bayless, 107
  38. ^ a b Silverman, 342
  39. ^ a b Silverman, 354
  40. ^ a b Bayless, 108
  41. ^ Bayless, 111
  42. ^ Bayless, 111–112
  43. ^ Bayless, 143
  44. ^ Watts, Emily Stipes. The Poetry of American Women from 1632 to 1945. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press, 1977: 70–71. ISBN 0-292-76450-2
  45. ^ Watts, Emily Stipes. The Poetry of American Women from 1632 to 1945. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press, 1978: 73. ISBN 0-292-76450-2
  46. ^ Bayless 201
  47. ^ Bayless, 143–144
  48. ^ a b c Silverman, 441
  49. ^ a b c d Meyers, 209
  50. ^ Bayless, 149
  51. ^ a b Bayless, 205
  52. ^ Bayless, 206–207
  53. ^ Jonathan Ned Katz, Love Stories: Sex Between Men Before Homosexuality (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005), 105–106
  54. ^ Loving, 184–185
  55. ^ Katz, 105–106; Loving, 202
  56. ^ Bayless, 212
  57. ^ Bayless, 217
  58. ^ Bayless, 220
  59. ^ Bayless, 221
  60. ^ Bayless, 222
  61. ^ Bayless, 223
  62. ^ Bayless, 226
  63. ^ a b Bayless, 227
  64. ^ Bayless, 251
  65. ^ a b Bayless, 253
  66. ^ Phillips, Mary E. Edgar Allan Poe: The Man. Volume II. Chicago: The John C. Winston Co., 1926: 1575
  67. ^ Rosenheim, Shawn James. The Cryptographic Imagination: Secret Writing from Edgar Poe to the Internet. The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997: 123. ISBN 978-0-8018-5332-6.
  68. ^ Quinn, 692
  69. ^ a b Bayless, 255
  70. ^ Bayless, 90
  71. ^ a b Bayless, 247
  72. ^ Pattee, 363
  73. ^ Miller, 168
  74. ^ a b c Quinn, 351
  75. ^ a b Silverman, 216–217
  76. ^ Miller, 204
  77. ^ Miller, 211
  78. ^ Quinn, 354
  79. ^ James Harrison, ed., The Complete Works of Edgar Allan Poe, New York: T. Y. Crowell, 1902, vol XVII. 220–243
  80. ^ Pattee, 389
  81. ^ a b c d Bayless, 79
  82. ^ Brooks, Van Wyck. The Flowering of New England. New York: E. P. Dutton and Company, Inc., 1952: 520
  83. ^ a b Lewis, R. W. B. The American Adam: Innocence, Tragedy, and Tradition in the Nineteenth Century. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1955: 81.
  84. ^ Parks, Edd Winfield. Ante-Bellum Southern Literary Critics. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1962: 303.
  85. ^ Silverman, 211
  86. ^ Silverman, 215–216
  87. ^ Omans, Glen A. "Poe and Washington Allston: Visionary Kin", collected in Poe and His Times: The Artist and His Milieu, edited by Benjamin Franklin Fisher IV. Baltimore: The Edgar Allan Poe Society, 1990: 24. ISBN 0-9616449-2-3.
  88. ^ a b Silverman, 216
  89. ^ Quinn, 352
  90. ^ Quinn, 353
  91. ^ Bayless, 75–76
  92. ^ Silverman, 218
  93. ^ Campbell, Killis. "The Poe-Griswold Controversy", The Mind of Poe and Other Studies. New York: Russell & Russell, Inc., 1962: 67.
  94. ^ Meyers, 174
  95. ^ Bayless, 144
  96. ^ Sova, 142
  97. ^ a b Moss, 125
  98. ^ Bayless, 164
  99. ^ Quinn, 651
  100. ^ a b Bayless, 166–167
  101. ^ Quinn, 754
  102. ^ a b Silverman, 439
  103. ^ Hoffman, Daniel Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1972: 14. ISBN 0-8071-2321-8.
  104. ^ Moss, 121
  105. ^ Sova, 102
  106. ^ Sova, 101
  107. ^ Moss, 122
  108. ^ Beale, 25–28
  109. ^ Beale, 70
  110. ^ Frank, Frederick and Anthony Magistrale. The Poe Encyclopedia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1991: 149. ISBN 0-313-27768-0.
  111. ^ Silverman, 440
  112. ^ Meyers, 263
  113. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Pattee, 390
  114. ^ Bayless, 85–86
  115. ^ Bayless, 96


  • Bayless, Joy (1943). Rufus Wilmot Griswold: Poe's Literary Executor (Hardcover ed.). Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press. 
  • Davis, Richard Beale (editor) (1952). Chivers' Life of Poe (Paperback ed.). New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc. 
  • Loving, Jerome (1999). Walt Whitman: The Song of Himself (Paperback ed.). University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22687-9. 
  • Meyers, Jeffrey (1992). Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy (Paperback ed.). New York: Cooper Square Press. ISBN 0-8154-1038-7. 
  • Miller, Perry (1956). The Raven and the Whale: The War of Words and Wits in the Era of Poe and Melville. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World, Inc. 
  • Moss, Sidney P (1969). Poe's Literary Battles: The Critic in the Context of His Literary Milieu (Paperback ed.). Southern Illinois University Press. 
  • Pattee, Fred Lewis (1966). The First Century of American Literature: 1770–1870 (Hardback ed.). New York: Cooper Square Publishers. 
  • Quinn, Arthur Hobson (1998). Edgar Allan Poe: A Critical Biography (Paperback ed.). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-5730-9. 
  • Silverman, Kenneth (1991). Edgar A. Poe: Mournful and Never-ending Remembrance (Paperback ed.). New York: Harper-Perennial. ISBN 0-06-092331-8. 
  • Sova, Dawn B. (2001). Edgar Allan Poe: A to Z (Paperback ed.). New York: Checkmark Books. ISBN 0-8160-4161-X. 


  • Passages from the Correspondence and Other Papers of Rufus W. Griswold (Cambridge, Mass., 1898), edited by his son William McCrillis Griswold (1853–1899)


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